Physio Ch. 9&13 CNS & Reflexes

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-03-06 01:48

Section 1

Question Answer
The CNS is protected bybone, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid
What is a spinal tap used for?diagnostic for infections like meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage
Hydrocephalywater trapped and continuously accumulating in infant skull
What is the blood brain barrier and what can and can't pass through ita highly selective permeability for the brain capilaries, protects brain from toxic water soluble compounds and pathogens. Can: O2, glucose, alcohol, CO2. Can't: toxins and drugs
What does the brain use for energy?glucose
Type 3 diabetesresistance of insulin in the brain, Alzheimer's dz
short term memorya few pieces of info at a time, disappear unless effort it made
long term memoryvast amounts of info. reflexive: automatic, doesnt require conscious processing. declarative: requires attention for recall
what process does short term become long term memory?consolidation
which part of the spinal cord carry sensory info from receptors to CNS?dorsal roots
which part of the spinal cord carry motor info from the CNS to effectors?ventral roots
somatic reflexesskeletal muscle reflex
autonomic reflexesvisceral, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, glands
5 components of the reflex arc1. receptor 2. sensory afferent neuron 3. integration center may involve interneurons 4. motor efferent neurons 5. effector muscle or gland
what is the process of the knee jerk reflex?stretch receptors stimulated, afferent neuron signals CNS, CNS processes info, action potentials sent via efferent neuron, effector activates
reciprocal inhibitioninhibiting of antagonistic muscle so agonist contracts ex inhibit hamstrings to quads can contract and extend leg

Section 2

Question Answer
Hypoglycemianeurons don't get enough glucose to sustain electrical activity, leads to confusion and irritability
medulla oblongataregulates bp, heart rate, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting. decussation of nerves
ponscoordinates breathing rhythm with medulla, relay station between cerebrum and cerebellum
midbraincontrols eye movement, autidory and visual reflexes, startle reflex
cerebellumprocess sensory info, coordinates and executes movement.
cerebellum sensory inputsomatic receptors of periphery of body, equilibrium receptors in the ear
cerebellum motor inputcerebrum
diencephalon: thalamusrelay station
diencephalon: hypothalamus1. controls ANS 2. production of hormones ADH and oxytocin 3. regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temp, circadian rhythm
basal gangliagroup of nuclei that controls movement
limbic systememotional brain, emotions, behaviors, arousal, memory
cerebral lateralizationcertain lobes have special functions that aren't present in any other lobe
expressive aphasiaBroca's speech area damaged, causes difficulty speaking normally
receptive aphasiaWernicke's area damaged, speech becomes nonsense
frontal lobe sensationsprimary motor area, premotor cortex, skin detection
parietal lobe sensationsgustation, holds primary samatosensory cortex
temporal lobe sensationsolfactory and auditory
occipital lobe sensationsvisual
what does the primary somatosensory and motor areas control/sense?
cerebral hemispheres
cerebral cortex
controls body's sense of touch, generate neural impulses that control movement
all cognitive funtions
separated, connected by corpus callosum
outer layer, sight of higher brain function

Section 3

Question Answer
What does the reticular activating system do?maintaining conscious and sleep/wake cycles, prevents sensory overload
How does sleep affect your CSF?its important for removing proteins that build up in alzheimer's
awake descriptionno dominant waveform, irregular, rapid, conscious.
relaxation/drowsinesswaves become more in sync, alpha waves appear
stages 1-2 of sleep cycletheta waves seen, if awoken subject wouldnt remember being asleep
stages 3-4 of sleep cycledelta waves seen, deepest sleep, sleep walking/talking occurs, changing postition without conscious command of brain
REM sleeprapid eye movement, skeletal muscles are paralyzed, combo of alpha and beta waves, dreaming
how does the sleep cycle change throughout the night?stages 1-4 repeat, eventually stage 1 gets replaced with REM sleep, and eventually no theta waves are present during the last few cycles

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