Physio Ch. 7 & 23, The Endocrine Sys

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-03-07 05:25

Section 1

Question Answer
endocrinologystudy of hormones
hormonechemical messenger secreted by a cell or group of cells into the blood (neurotransmitters)
hormones/neurohormones act on targets in 3 ways:1. controlling rates of enzymatic reactions 2. controlling membrane transport 3. gene expression and protein synthasis
hormones are secreted byglands, endocrine cells, neurons, sometimes immune system
hormones transported byblood to a distant target
how can the same hormone have different effects on tissues? (insulin in SM and brain)in skeletal muscle & adipose tissues, insulin alters glucose metabolism. but in the brain, insulin doesn't have any effect on glucose metabolism
PEPTIDE HORMONES when are they made? how are they transported? how long do they last? what to they bind to? responses? example.premade "prohormones", by blood, short lived, bind to protein on the pm, modify or make new protein, insulin
STEROID HORMONES when are they made? how are they transported? how long do they last? what to they bind to? responses? example.on demand, bind to carriers, long lasting, bind to receptor inside the pm, new proteins are made, estrogen
amine derived hormone: catecholamineepinephrine and norepinephrine, act like peptide hormones
amine derived hormone: thyroid hormoneact like steroid hormones
antagonistic hormoneaction of one hormone is opposite to another, insulin v glucagon
synergistic hormoneeffect of both hormones is greater together than apart, epinephrine and glucagon
permissive hormoneone hormone cant exert full effect unless another is present. thyroid hormone and reproductive
what is an amine derived hormone?small molecules derived from tyrosine or tryptophan, tryptophan derived hormone -> malatonin
how is hormone release controlled?HPA Axis, feedback systems, mostly negative feedback
what are the 5 hormones the hypothalamus releases?thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH, corticotropin releasing hormone CRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH, growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH, somatostain
Growth Hormone stimulatesgrowth hormone releasing hormone GHRH
corticosterioids are controlled bycorticostropinl releasing hormone CRH
sex hormones are controlled bygonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH
thyroid hormone controlsthyroid releasing hormone TRH
growth hormone (inhibits)growth hormone inhibitor hormone, somatostatin

Section 2

Question Answer
posterior pituitary doesnt synthesize hormones, stores and releases hormones made by hypothalamus, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
how does a long loop negative feedback work?hormone secreted by the peripheral endocrine gland feeds back and suppresses the pituitary or hypothalamic hormones
how does a short loop negative feedback work?pituitary hormone feeds back to the hypothalamus to decrease hormone secretion by the hypothalamus
what is a major element required for thyroid hormone synthesis? how?iodine, iodine is added to thyroglobulin during TH synthesis
how is TH controlled?negative feedback, TRH > Ant. Pit. > TSH > thyroid > TH
how can a goiter be developed?either hypo: enlarges to make more TH or hyper: enlarges to accommodate more TH
how is parathyroid hormone PTH used in calcium homeostasis?PTH raises Ca2+ levels in blood by increasing osteoclasts, reabsorbing ca into blood from kidneys and increasing calcitriol in intestines
how is calcitonin used in calcium homeostasis?lowers Ca2+ levels in blood, by stimulating osteoblasts in bone and enhancing secretion of calcium into urine from kidney
cortisol controlCRH activates ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone in ant pit, ACTh stimulates a release of cortisol from adrenal cortex, negative feedback loop
what are the three p's of diabetes?polydypsia: increase thirst, polyphagia: increase hunger, polyuria: increase urination
what are some tests to detect diabetes mellitus?hemoglobin A1C: formed when glucose binds to blood cell, levels above 6.5% diabetic. fasting plasma glucose: must fast for 8 hours, levels greater than /= 126 mg/dl is diabetes. c peptide: released with insulin into blood, shows how much insulin is being made, distinguishes between IDDM&NIDDM
thymussecretes thymosin, involved in T cell maturation

Section 3

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