Physio Ch. 17, Breathing

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-04-18 06:38

Section 1

Question Answer
respiratory system functionsexchange of gases with environment, pH homeostasis
functions of conducting portioninspiration, expiration, olfaction, gas conditioning,phonation, immune system
its composed ofnose, mouth, pharynx, glottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
upper respiratory tractnasal cavity and pharynx
lower respiratory tractlarynx: epiglottis and vocal cords, trachea, bronchi, lungs: bronchioles and alveoli
warming, filtering, humidifying airwarmed so alveoli arent damaged, filters foreign material, humidified so epithelium doesnt dry out. ciliated epithelium lined with saline layer, mucous floats above this layer to trap foreign material
cystic fibrosisCFTR channel malfunctions, decrease in amount of saline layer, cilia trapped in thick mucous, leads to infections
bronchi v bronchiolesbronchi: incomplete rings of cartilage, PCCE, SM. bronchioles: no cartilage, simple columnar or cubodial epi, thick layer of SM
bronchioles can change in diameterunder paracrine influence (co2 and histamine), beta 2 and epi lead to relaxation of muscles increasing radius
type 1 alveoliperform gas exchange
type 2 alveolisecrete pulmonary surfactant
respiratory membranesite of diffusion of gas
ventilationprocess of moving air into and out of the lungs
external respirationgas exchange between blood and external environment
internal respirationgas exchange between blood and extracellular fluid
dalton's lawtotal pressure exerted by mix of gases is sum of pressure exerted by individual gases
boyle's lawpressure is inversely proportional to volume
intrapleural pressurepressure between pleural membranes, resting is -4 mmHg, always lower than intra alveolar pressure
intra alveolar pressurepressure in alveoli, allows air to enter and exit lungs, decreased during inspiration, increased during expiration
transpulmonary pressuredifference between intra alveolar and intrapleural pressures, helps maintain alveolar inflation
pneumothoraxcollapsed lung, caused by a puncture in the pleural membrane, treatment: chest tube

Section 2

Question Answer
pulmonary ventilationnormal inhalation: diaphragmatic contraction aided by intercostal muscles, increased thoracic cavity and lung volume. normal exhilation: elastic recoil of throax and lungs, decreased volume
3 reasons why alveolar air is different from atmospheric air1. increased water vapor as air travels 2. due to dead space, not all air is fresh causing higher co2 3. o2 always being absorbed and co2 being discharged in
eupneaquiet breathing, inspiration active, expiration passive, diaphragmatic and costal
hyperneaforced, accessory muscles participate, both insp and exp are active
lung volumes can be measured byspirometer
tidal volumeamount of air you breathe in and out normally
inspiratory reserve vamount of air you can breathe in after normal inhalation
expiratory reserve vamount of air you can breathe out after normal exhalation
residual volumeamount of air left in lungs after exhaling as much as possible
vital capacitymax amount of air inhaled and exhaled from lungs
total lung capacitytotal amount of air in lungs after you take as deep a breathe as possible
compliancemeasure how easy it is to stretch the lungs, high compliance = easy to stretch
elastanceability to recoil after stretch, low elastance = less ability to return to original shape
pulmonary function testsused to determine if a person has an obstructive or restrictive disease
forced vital capacity FVCvolume of air a person can forcibly and max exhale after deep breath
forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled in one second of exhale
obstructive diseasesdifficulty exhaling air from lungs, damaged or narrowing airways. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, copd
restrictive diseasesdifficulty expanding the lungs to fill with air, increasing stuffness in lung tissue. pulmonary fibrosis, tiberculosis
regulation of ventilation 3emotions and voluntary control in higher brain centers and limbic system, co2 in medulla oblongata chemoreceptors/central chemoreceptors, o2 and pH in carotid and aorta chemoreceptors/peripheral chemoreceptors