Phospholipid, Cholesterol, Steroid Synthesis

kitkat1's version from 2016-05-05 02:04

Section 1

Question Answer
Glycerophospholipid has a ______ grouphead
There are two strategies to get the head group onto the phosphate group using _____ and _____CDP diacylglycerol, 1, 2-diacylglycerol
When making glycerophospholipid, what is lost as a result?CMP
When you condense two phosphotidyl groups together, what molecule do you make?cardiolipin
Cardiolipin is synthesized by precursor _________ and enzyme _CDP-diacylglycerol, cardiolipin synthase
Phosphatidylinositol is synthesized by precursor _________ and enzyme _CDP-diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol synthase
Cardiolipin uses _____ and phosphatidylinositol uses ____phosphatidylglycerol, inositol

Section 2

Question Answer
What is used to make sphingolipid?palmitoyl acid
Name the intermediates of ganglioside synthesis Palmitoyl acid, Ketospingonine, Sphingonine, Dihydroceramide, Ceramide, Glucoceramide, Lactoceramide
To transform Dihydroceramide to Ceramide, what enzyme do you need?Dihydroceramide desaturase

Section 3

Question Answer
How many molecules of acetate is used to produce cholesterol 3
The first step of cholesterol synthesis is the transformation of acetate groups to ______mevalonate
How many carbons does mevalonate have?Six
The second step of cholesterol synthesis is the transformation of mevalonate to ____activated isoprene
How many carbons does activated isoprene have?Five
How many molecules of activated isoprene is needed to produce squaleneSix
Squalene is a _________ carbon ring Thirty
Squalene is transformed into ______Cholesterol
Cholesterol has how many sterol rings?Four
What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis, and can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in response to hormonal changes. HMG-CoA reductase
From HMG-CoA to mevalonate, what is used to proceed through this reaction2 NADPH
How many ATP is used to convert mevalonate to isoprene units?3 ATP
From squalene to cholesterol, you need ring closure. To this you need to add ____ and _____ to squalene. oxygen, NADPH
What is used to close up shop on the squalene rings?Cyclase

Section 4

Question Answer
Synthesis of cholesterol takes place in the ______liver
Cholesterol is transformed into _________ _________ _________ biliary cholesterol, bile salts, cholesteryl esters
Cholesterol can either be used for _____, or a precursor to _____ and _____membrane synthesis, steroid hormone, Vitamin D
Cholesterol are carried in the blood by _____plasma lipoprotein
Different combinations of lipoprotein exist for example: ____ ___ ___ Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis?HMG-CoA reductase
True or False: Cholesterol Synthesis involve transcriptional regulationTrue
What protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of cholesterol?SREBP, SCAT
When cholesterol is high, SREBP is secured in the ____ER
When cholesterol levels are low, SREBP and SCAT move into the ___Golgi Complex
To activate the gene, what needs to be cleaved by protealase for it to happen?The amino part of the SREBP protein
Glucagon stimulates ______ and insulin promotes ________activating the protein and favoring cholesterol synthesisphosphorylation, dephosphorylation

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