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Phonatory System

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ness37's version from 2017-05-22 21:57

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Cartilages of the LarynxHyoid bone, Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage, Epiglottis, Arytenoid cartilages, Corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
3 unpaired cartilagesCricoid cartilage, Thyroid cartilage, Epiglottis
3 paired cartilagesArytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilage and cuneiform cartilage
Hyoid boneSuspended from styloid process of the skull by the stylohyoid ligament, located from C3-C6
Thyroid cartilage Made up of two plates called the thyroid laminae, fused at 90 degrees (males) or 120 degrees (females), superior cornu connects to hyoid bone, inferior cornu articulates with cricoid and forms the cricothyroid joint (pivot joint)
Cricoid cartilageRing of cartilage, connected to the first tracheal ring by cricotracheal ligament
EpiglottisStem connects to thyroid notch by the thyroepiglottic ligament, connects the hyoid bone to the hyoepiglottic liagment
Arytenoid cartilages3 sided pyramid (medial, posterior and anterolateral), forms cricoarytenoid joint with cricoid, each cartilage has 2 processes and 4 surfaces
Corniculate cartilagesLocated on top of arytenoid cartilages. Function as a better attachment to muscles that can help with opening and closing of the vocal fold and an extension of arytenoids.
Cuneiform cartilagesSmall cartilages embedded in the aryepiglottic folds, provide stability to the folds and laryngal covering
Extrinsic membranes of the LarynxHyothyroid, hyoepiglottic, cricotracheal
Intrinsic membranes of the LarynxCornus elasticus (is the lateral portion of the cricothyroid ligament, holds cricoid, thyroid and arytenoids together) + Quadrangular membrane ( membrane runs between the lateral aspects of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages on each side, anchor for ventricular folds)
Intrinsic Laryngeal musclesThese are the muscles that originate and insert within the larynx itself. They are all paired (symmetrically arranged) = thyroarytenoid, cricoarytenoid, interarytenoid, cricothyroid, aryepeglottic, thyroepiglottic
ThyroarytenoidAdductor muscle, form the body of the vocal folds themselves, made of 5 layers of tissue, when they contract they shorten the vocal folds by pulling the arytenoid end of the vocal folds toward the thyroid end. This shortens the vocal folds and bunches them up, which causes them to vibrate more slowly = lower pitch.
5 layers of Thyroarytenoid muscleEpithelium, 3 layers of Lamina propria, vocalis
CricoarytenoidPosterior (only abductor muscle) open the glottis by pulling the back ends of the arytenoid cartilages together + Lateral (adductors) close the glottis by pulling the back end of the arytenoid cartilages apart
InterarytenoidTransverse + Oblique = bring the arytenoid cartilages together to provide medial compression for the vocal folds (in other words, the vocal folds squeeze together tighter to resist the air pressure from the lungs.
CricothyroidVertical (pars recta) + Oblique (pars tensa) = vocal fold lengtheners (tensors). They pull the thyroid cartilage down and forward on its hinge, increasing the distance between the arytenoids and the thyroid notch. This lengthens and tightens the vocal folds, causing them to vibrate faster, and thus raising pitch.
Laryngeal musclesIntrinsic or extrinsic, either abduct (pull apart), adduct (pull together) or tense the vocal folds
Aryepiglottic Sphincter muscle from arytenoids and epiglottis
ThyroepiglotticSphincter muscle from epiglottis down to thyroid (pulls epiglottis down to stop food going into trachea
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