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Phonatory System

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abisnail's version from 2017-05-22 20:24

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Question Answer
What is the hyoid bone? Not part of the larynx, but laryngeal elements are suspended from the hypothyroid membrane
Where is the hyoid bone? Suspended from the styloid process of the skull by the stylohyoid ligament
Where on the spinal column is the larynx?Located from C3-C6
What are the three unpaired cartilages of the larynx?Cricoid, thyroid and epiglottis
What are the three paired cartilages of the larynx?Arytenoids, corniculates and cuneiform
Which of the cartilages are hyaline?Thyroid, cricoid and arytenoids
Describe the hyaline cartilageOssifies with age
Which of the cartilages are elastic?Epiglottis, corniculate and cuneiform
At what degree is the thyroid lamina fused in a male?90 degrees
At what degree is the thyroid lamina fused in a female?120 degrees
What connects the thyroid and the hyoid?Superior cornua via hypothyroid ligaments
What connects the thyroid and the cricoid?The inferior cornua via the capsular ligaments
What type of joint is the cricothyroid joint?Pivot joint
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Question Answer
The cricoid cartilage is shaped likeA signet ring
How is the cricoid cartilage connected to the first tracheal ring?Cricotracheal ligament
The epiglottis is shaped likeA leaf
How does the epiglottis connect to the thyroid?The stem connects to the thyroid notch by the thyroepiglottic ligament
Where is the epiglottis in relation to the tongue?The epiglottis is posterior to the root of the tongue and is continuous with it (glossoepiglottic folds)
How does the epiglottis connect to the hyoid?By the hyoepiglottic ligament
What happens to the epiglottis when you pull the tongue forward?When you pull the tongue forward, the epiglottis moves too
What are the arytenoid cartilages?two three-sided pyramids
Where are the arytenoid cartilages?From the cricoarytenoid joints with cricoid
Where are the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages?Embedded in the aryepiglottic folds
What do the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages do?Provide some stability to the folds
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Question Answer
Name the three extrinsic membranes of the larynxHyothyroid, hyoepiglottic and cricotracheal
What type of membrane lines the larynx?A continuous elastic membrane in two parts
Name the lower part of the elastic membrane lining of the larynxConus elasticus
What does the conus elasticus do?Holds the cricoid, thyroid and arytenoids together
Name the three ligaments of the conus elasticusMedial and lateral cricothyroid ligaments and vocal ligaments
Name the upper part of the elastic membrane lining of the larynxQuadrangular membrane
Name the ligaments on the quadrangular membraneVentricular ligaments
What are the components of the supraglottic region of the laryngeal cavity?Vestibule, ventricular folds and ventricle
What is the name of the entry to the larynx?Auditus laryngus
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Question Answer
What does the thyroarytenoid muscle do?Adducts the vocal folds
How big is the thyroarytenoid in females?13-17mm
How big is the thyroarytenoid in males?17-24mm
How many layers of tissue are there?5
Name the 2 cover layersSquamous epithelium and the superficial layer of the lamina propria
Name the 2 transition layersIntermediate layer of lamina propria and deep layer of lamina propria
Name the bodyVocalis
What does the cricoarytenoid do?Attach to muscular process of arytenoids
What does the posterior arytenoid do?Pulls the VF apart
What do the lateral arytenoids do?Pulls the VF together for vocalisation
What do the transverse arytenoids do?Adduct the posterior of the arytenoids
What do the oblique arytenoids do?Adduct the posterior of the arytenoids
What do the vertical cricothyroids do?Tilts the thyroid down, lengthens and stretches VF
What is another name for the vertical cricothyroids?Pars recta
What do the oblique cricothyroids do?Pull the thyroid forward, lengthens and stretches VF
What is another name for the oblique cricothyroids?Pars oblique
What do the tensor muscles do?Puts tension on the vocal folds
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Section

Question Answer
Name the two intrinsic laryngeal musclesAryepiglottic and thyroepiglottic
What is one feature that both muscles share?They are both sphincter muscles
Where is the eryepiglottic muscle?At the top of the membrane lining the larynx, inside the aryepiglottic fold
Where is the thyroepiglottic muscle?Attached inside the epiglottis and down to the thyroid
What does the thyroepiglottic muscle do?Helps to close the epiglottis
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Question Answer
What do the extrinsic laryngeal muscles do?Attach to a structure outside the larynx, typically the hyoid
How many supra hyoid muscles are there?4
Where do the supra hyoid muscles attach?To the mandible and hyoid
What do the digastric supra hyoid muscles do?Open the jaw or elevate the hyoid
What is the mylohyoid muscle?A sheet of muscle under the digastric
What does the mylohyoid muscle do?Open the jaw or elevate the hyoid
Where is the geniohyoid?Under the mylohyoid, running from the chin to the hyoid
What does the geniohyoid do?Pulls the hyoid up and forwards
Where is the genioglossus?Deep in the tongue, connecting the tongue to the jaw
What does the genioglossus do?Help position the larynx and can depress the tongue or elevate the jaw
Where is the hyoglossus?Between the hyoid and the tongue
What does the hyoglossus do?Help position the larynx
Where is the stylohyoid?From the hyoid to the stylus behind the ear
What does the stylohyoid do?Pulls the hyoid up and back
Name the three pairs of infra hyoid musclesThyrohyoid, sternohyoid and omohyoid
What does the thyrohyoid do?Elevates the thyroid
What does the sternohyoid do?Depresses the hyoid
What does the omohyoid do?Holds the neck open in deep inspiration
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Question Answer
Name two extrinsic laryngeal musclesSternothyroid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor
What does the sternothyroid muscle do?Depresses the thyroid
What does the inferior pharyngeal constrictor do?Pulls the back of the pharynx forward and lowers part of the pharynx to affect resonance
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Question Answer
Which CN innervates the intrinsic muscles?Vagus X
Where does CN X start?Medulla
The superior laryngeal nerve splits into theInternal laryngeal nerve and the external laryngeal nerve
What does the internal laryngeal nerve do?Transmits sensory information from the supraglottic larynx
What does the external laryngeal nerve do?Transmits motor information to the cricothyroid
What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do?Loops around the aorta and R subclavian cavity. It then splits where some branches anastomose with internal laryngeal nerve
What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do?Transmits motor information to all other intrinsic muscles
Which CN innervate the extrinsic muscles?Trigeminal V, Facial VII and Hypoglossal XII
Which CN innervates the inferior pharyngeal constrictor?Vagus X
What happens if CN X is damaged?Phonatory abilities are quite damaged
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Question Answer
What are the primary functions of phonatory physiology?Protection of respiratory system and coughing and thoracic fixation
How does phonatory physiology cough?It closes up the larynx or holds the larynx closed to build up the pressure and cough
What is a secondary function of phonatory physiology?Vibratory sound source for voice
What is a typical octave range for a human?2-2.5 octaves (double frequency per octave)
What is the average vocal frequency for a male?80-160Hz
What is the average coal frequency for a female?160-250Hz
How do the VF change pitch?Longitudinal changes primarily caused by the thyroid moving forward
How does the thyroid move forward?The lateral cricoarytenoid contracts
How do the VF change in intensity?Medial compression
How do the VF compress medially?Contracting lateral cricoarytenoid pushes the VF together as well as contracting the thyroarytenoids
How do you get louder VF vibration?Increased compression of the vocal folds causes a greater resistance to subglottic pressure with causes a larger escape of air which causes a louder VF vibration
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Question Answer
What is the Bernoulli effect?An increase in velocity of air creates a reduction in pressure
How do the vocal folds vibrate?Subglottic pressure builds up which forces the elastic VF apart. Flow of air through the glottis creates a drop in pressure, 'sucking' the folds back together - assisted by elastic recoil
What is the name of the body of the VF?Thyroarytenoid muscle
What structures are the covers of the VF?Epithelium and superficial layer of lamina propria
What is the cover?A series of spring-mass systems, vibrating independently of each other
Describe the vibration of the vocal foldsThe VF vibrate in a wave from bottom to top
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Question Answer
Name two adductor muscles in phonatory mechanicsLateral cricoarytenoids and interarytenoids
What do the adductor muscles do to the arytenoids?Brings the arytenoids forwards, medially and downward
Adductor muscles permitMyoelastic aerodynamic vibration of folds
Complete adduction or high subglottic pressure is not necessary forVibration
Name an abductor muscle in phonatory mechanicsPosterior cricoarytenoid
What do the abductor muscles do?Rock the arytenoids up and back towards the cricoid and enable voiceless sounds
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Question Answer
What happens in the prephonation phase?Fold move from the paramedian position to adducted
What happens in the attack phase?A simultaneous attack where expired air is time with attack phase
What is a breathy attack?Expiration precedes adduction
What is a glottal attack?Adduction precedes expiration
What muscles are involved in production of higher pitches?Cricothyroid muscles , PCAs and thyroarytenoids
How are higher pitches created?Folds tighten, pitch increases. At higher pitches, extrinsic are activated. The hyoid and larynx are elevated which increases tension in the conus elastics with causes increased tension in the vocalist ligaments
Which muscles are involved in creating lower pitches?Thyroarytenoids
How are lower pitches created?Infrahyoids depress the hyoids and larynx which relaxes the conus elasticus and vocal ligaments
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Section

Question Answer
In pulse register, folds areCompressed together, short, thick and floppy at the glottal margin
Air 'bubbles' through irregularly at a ___________ frequency in pulse registerVery low frequency (<50Hz)
What type of register is conversation voicing?Modal register
_____ contact of the folds along their length in modal registerSignificant contact
Does the entire VF vibrate in modal voice?Yes
At higher pitches, how much of the VF vibrate?Only a single edge vibrates
What is the frequency range of modal voice compared with pulse register?4-6x
What is the intensity range of modal register?40-110dB
What type of register is falsetto?Loft register
How is loft register created?VF are very stiff, only the medial borders vibrate
What frequencies are produces in loft register?>1000Hz
What affects the amount of air?Intensity variation is affected by subglottic pressure variation which affects the amount of air
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Section

Question Answer
Describe the phonatory cycle for conversational speech50% open, 37% closing and 13% closed
Describe the phonatory cycle for loud speech33% open, 37% closing and 30% closed
Describe how pitch increases because of intensityRapid increase in intensity causes an increase in pitch
Describe how pitch increases as a result of increased compressionIncreased medial compression (to get louder) causes an increase in VF tension which increases pitch
Describe how pitch increases as a result of increased pressureIncreased subglottic pressure (to increase intensity) causes quicker adduction which increases pitch
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