Philosophy Final

vossome's version from 2015-05-04 23:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Ad HominemConclude argument is false because the person giving is has a bad characteristic
Tu Quo QuoConclude argument is false because the person giving the argument is a hypocrite
Guilt By AssociationConcluding argument is false by including the person in a separate and wrong party
Argument Ad Popalum Conclude argument is true by appealing to large group of people
Appeal to PityMake the audience feel good about someone and use that to accept claims
Appeal to Questionable AuthorityConclude argument is true by sourcing a questionable authority saying its true
Slippery SlopeRejecting a claim based on the fact that accepting it will lead to a chain reaction of events that leads to a bad event
Gamblers Fallacy X happened less often so X will happen more in the future
Appeal to NatureX is nature so X is good
Naturalistic FallacyX occurs when someone does something good, so X and goodness are the same thing.
Fallacy FallacyConcluding that someones argument is false because their argument is fallacious
Fallacy of Composition Concluding that what is true of the part is true of the whole
False AttributionMaking shit up
Inconsistant ComparisonA is best, cheaper than B, softer than C, and prettier than D.
Nirvana FallacyFalse choice between something unattainable/perfect or the way things are now
Kettle FallacyWhen I returned the kettle is wasn't broken. The kettle was broken when I got it. I didn't take the kettle.
Argument from RepetitionConclude that something is true because it has been repeated

Section 2

Question Answer
Categorical LogicStudy of arguments that state relationships between categories of things
VagueThe word has borderline cases ( not sure if it applies or not)
AmbiguousThe word can be interpreted in two ways
QuantifierTell us the amount of things
CopulaJoins subject to predicate (are)
Mathematical Model1. Precise definitions 2. Solve analytically 3. Prove it 4. Organize results
Informal FallaciesCan't be defined by structure
Formal FallaciesCan be defined by structure and content of the argument (Truth Tables)
Fallacies of No Evidence Reach a conclusion while giving no evidence for it
Deductive ArgumentAims to show a conclusion must be true
Inductive Argument Aims to show a conclusion is probably true

Section 3

Question Answer
Deductive Indicator Words
For Sure

Section 4

Question Answer
Inductive IndicatorWords
Most likely
It is likely that