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Philosophy Exam #2

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stlwalk's version from 2018-12-12 13:09

Section 1

Question Answer
Christian theismGod is infinite and personal(triune), transcendent and immanent, omniscient, sovereign, and good
DeismA transcendent God, as a First Cause, created the universe then left it to run on its own. God is thus not immanent, not fully personal, not sovereign over human affairs, and not providential.
NaturalismMatter exists eternally and is all there is. God does not exist.
NihilismNothing exists.
Atheistic ExistentialismMatter exists eternally and is all there is. God does not exist.
Theistic ExistentialismGod is infinite and personal(triune), transcendent and immanent, omniscient, sovereign, and good
Eastern Pantheistic MonismAtman is Brahman; that is the soul of each and every human being is the Soul of the cosmos.
New AgeWhatever the nature of being(idea or matter; energy or particle), the self is the kingpin-the prime reality. As human beings grow in their awareness and grasp of this fact, the human race is on the verge of a radical change in human nature; even now we see harbingers of transformed humanity and prototypes of the New Age.
PostmodernismThe first question addressed is not “what is there or how we know what is there” but how language functions to construct meaning itself. In other words, there has been a shift in “first things” from being to knowing to constructing meaning. (It doesn’t matter what the truth is because everyone constructs their own reality.) They believe that the way we describe something changes our perception of it, which changes reality...
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Section 2: External Reality

Question Answer
Christian theismGod created the cosmos ex nihilo to operate with a uniformity of cause and effect in an open system.
DeismThe cosmos God created is determined because it is created as a uniformity of cause and effect in a closed system; no miracle is possible.
NaturalismThe cosmos exists as a uniformity of cause and effect in a closed system.
NihilismThe cosmos exists as a uniformity of cause and effect in a closed system.
Atheistic ExistentialismThe cosmos exists as a uniformity of cause and effect in a closed system. The cosmos is composed solely of matter, but to human beings reality appears in two forms-subjective and objective.
Theistic ExistentialismThe cosmos is composed solely of matter, but to human beings reality appears in two forms-subjective and objective.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismSome things are more one than others. Many (if not all) roads lead to One.
New AgeThree distinctive attitudes are taken to the metaphysical question of the nature of reality: (1) the occult version, in which the beings and things perceived in states of altered consciousness exist apart from the self that is conscious, (2) the psychedelic version, in which these things and beings are projections of the conscious self, and (3) the conceptual relativistic version, in which the cosmic consciousness is the conscious activity of a mind using one of many non-ordinary models for reality, none of which is any “truer” than any other.
PostmodernismThe truth about the reality itself is forever hidden from us. All we can do is tell stories. All narratives mask a play for power. Any one narrative used as a metanarrative is oppressive.
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Section 3: Human Being

Question Answer
Christian theismHuman beings are created in the image of God and thus possess personality, self-transcendence, intelligence, morality, gregariousness, and creativity.
DeismHuman beings, though personal, are a part of the clockwork of the universe.
NaturalismHuman beings are complex “machines”; personality is an interrelation of chemical and physical priorities we do not yet fully understand.
NihilismWithin a closed system humanity loses self-determination and dignity (significance).
Atheistic ExistentialismFor human beings alone existence precedes essence; people make themselves who they are.
Theistic ExistentialismHuman beings are personal beings who, when they come to full consciousness, find themselves in an alien universe; whether or not God exists is a tough question to be solved not by reason but by faith.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismTo realize one’s oneness with the cosmos is to pass beyond personality.
New AgeThe cosmos, while unified in the self, is manifested in two more dimensions: the visible universe, accessible through ordinary consciousness, and the invisible universe (or Mind at Large), accessible through altered states of consciousness.
PostmodernismHuman beings make themselves who they are by the languages the construct about themselves.
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Section 4: Person at Death

Question Answer
Christian theismFor each person death is either the gate to life with God and his people or the gate to eternal separation from the only thing that will ultimately fulfill human aspirations.
DeismCould go either way.
NaturalismDeath is extinction of personality and individuality.
NihilismDeath is extinction of personality and individuality.
Atheistic ExistentialismDeath is extinction of personality and individuality.
Theistic ExistentialismFor human beings death is either the gate to life with God and his people or life forever separated from God.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismDeath is the end of individual personal existence, but it changes nothing essential in an individual’s nature.
New AgePhysical death is not the end of self; under the experience of cosmic consciousness, the fear of death is removed.
PostmodernismDeath is extinction of personality and individuality.
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Section 5: To Know Anything

Question Answer
Christian TheismHuman beings can know both the world around them and God himself because God has built into them the capacity to do so and because he takes an active role in communicating with them.
DeismThe cosmos, this world, is understood to be in its normal state; it is not fallen or abnormal. We can know the universe, and we can determine what God is like by studying it.
NaturalismWe can know the universe.
NihilismWithin a closed system man cannot trust what he knows (how can he know that he knows).
Atheistic ExistentialismThe highly wrought and tightly organized objective world stands over against human beings and appears absurd.
Theistic ExistentialismHuman beings can know both the world around them and God himself because God has built into them the capacity to do so and because he takes an active role in communicating with them. Knowledge is subjectivity; the whole truth is often paradoxical.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismTo realize one’s oneness with the the cosmos is to pass beyond cosmos is to pass beyond knowledge. The principal of non-contradiction does not apply where ultimate reality concerned.
New AgeThe core experience of the New New Age is cosmic consciousness, in which ordinary categories of space, time and morality tend to disappear.
PostmodernismAll narratives mask a play for power. Any one narrative used as a metanarrative is oppressive.
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Section 6: Right and wrong

Question Answer
Christian theismEthics is transcendent and is based on the character of God as good (holy and loving).
DeismEthics is limited to general revelation; because the universe is normal, it reveals what is right.
NaturalismEthics is related only to human beings.
NihilismHow can one connect what is with what ought to be, that is that moral values have no bases?
Atheistic ExistentialismEthics is related only to human beings. In full recognition of and against the absurdity of the objective world, the authentic person must revolt and create value.
Theistic ExistentialismEthics is transcendent and is based on the character of God as good (holy and loving). The personal is the valuable. Knowledge is subjectivity; the whole truth is often paradoxical.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismTo realize one’s oneness with the cosmos is to pass beyond good and evil; the cosmos is perfect at every moment.
New AgeThe core experience of the New Age is cosmic consciousness, in which ordinary categories of space, time and morality tend to disappear.
PostmodernismEthics, like knowledge, is a linguistic construct. Social good is whatever society takes it to be.
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Section 7: Human History

Question Answer
Christian theismHistory is linear, a meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God’s purpose for humanity.
DeismHistory is linear, for the course of the cosmos was determined at creation.
NaturalismHistory is a linear system of events linked by cause and effect but without an overarching purpose.
NihilismHistory is a linear system of events linked by cause and effect but without an overarching purpose.
Atheistic ExistentialismHistory is a linear system of events linked by cause and effect but without an overarching purpose. The highly wrought and tightly organized objective world stands over against human beings and appears absurd
Theistic ExistentialismHistory as a record of events is uncertain and unimportant, but history as a model or type or myth to be made present and lived is of supreme importance.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismTo realize one’s oneness with the One is to pass beyond time. Time is unreal. History is cyclical.
New AgeThe core experience of the New Age is cosmic consciousness, in which ordinary categories of space, time and morality tend to disappear.
PostmodernismThe cutting edge of culture is literary theory.
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