Philosophy Exam #1

stlwalk's version from 2016-04-27 03:23


Question Answer
Ologystudy of
Ismchanges from behavior to philosophy (way of seeing and believing)
Axiology(morality/ethics) truth ; study of how we act and how we should act
Morality (individual knowing right vs. wrong): principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior
Ethics (social/what society expects): moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior.
Question Answer
Epistemologystudy of knowing
Empiricismbelieve in observed understanding - all knowledge is gained through observation - collection of information from five senses
Hegelianismthesis evokes an antithesis which results in one unified synthesis (moving towards one totally unified synthesis) - the rational only is real
Modernismquestions who can know the truth? (subjective)
Postmodernismtruth doesn’t need to be known (who cares?)
Rationalisminherent/innate understanding - all knowledge is innate
Realismquestions how we know things
Ontologystudy of being/existence (physicality)
Idealismany of various systems of thought in which the objects of knowledge are held to be in some way dependent on the activity of mind. An approach to philosophy that regards mind, spirit, or ideas as the most fundamental kinds of reality, or at least as governing our experience of the ordinary objects in the world - opposed to materialism, naturalism, and realism.
Materialisma form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are identical with material interactions
Naturalismthe "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world."
PantheismGod is everything and everything is God
Theologystudy of God, foundation of all education
Agnosticismimpossible to know anything about God or about the creation of the universe (maybe God?)
Atheismno God
Deismimpersonal God
TheismGod (Christian belief)


Question Answer
Christian theismGod is infinite and personal(triune), transcendent and immanent, omniscient, sovereign, and good
DeismA transcendent God, as a First Cause, created the universe then left it to run on its own. God is thus not immanent, not fully personal, not sovereign over human affairs, and not providential.
NaturalismMatter exists eternally and is all there is. God does not exist.
NihilismNothing exists.
Atheistic ExistentialismMatter exists eternally and is all there is. God does not exist.
Theistic ExistentialismGod is infinite and personal(triune), transcendent and immanent, omniscient, sovereign, and good.
Eastern Pantheistic MonismAtman is Brahman; that is the soul of each and every human being is the Soul of the cosmos.
New AgeWhatever the nature of being(idea or matter; energy or particle), the self is the kingpin-the prime reality. As human beings grow in their awareness and grasp of this fact, the human race is on the verge of a radical change in human nature; even now we see harbingers of transformed humanity and prototypes of the New Age.
PostmodernismThe first question addressed is not “what is there or how we know what is there” but how language functions to construct meaning itself. In other words, there has been a shift in “first things” from being to knowing to constructing meaning. (It doesn’t matter what the truth is because everyone constructs their own reality.) They believe that the way we describe something changes our perception of it, which changes reality...