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Philosophy exam 1

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chelseaabw's version from 2017-02-22 14:59

Section

Question Answer
What is ethicsthe study of what we ought to do and what is right wrong
What is descriptive ethicsthe study of what individuals or groups believe is moral
What is normative ethicsthe study of what is moral
What is moralityrefers to beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and bad beliefs that can include judgments, values, rules, principles, and theories
What is philosophy?understanding the fundamental nature and relationship of things, beliefs , god, morality existence
why do philosophy?ethical indispensability, we undermine our autonomy and rationality by not seriously considering our beliefs, increased risk of mistaken or confused views without critical examination, risk of not Risk of not being able to defend one’s views. Is a belief worth having if it lacks explanation?
What are the elements of ethicsThe preeminence of reason, the universal perspective, the principle of impartiality, the dominance of moral norms
What is the universal perspectivethe idea that a moral statement (a principle, rule or judgement) that applies in one situation must apply in all other situations that are relevantly similar
What is the principle of impartialityit means that the welfare and interests of each indivudual should be fiven the same weight as the welfare and interests of all others,unless there is a morally relevant difference between people we should treat them the same
What is consequentialismmoral theories say that what makes an action right is its consequences
What is nonconsequentialismmoral theories say that the rightness of an action does not depend entirely on its consequences
What are the type of moral theories?Consequentalist, Nonconsequaltist
What are consequentalist theories Utilitarianism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, ethical egoism
What is act utlitarianismthe right action is the action that directly produces the most good
What is rule utlitarisnism the morally right action that is the one covered by a rule ,that if generally followed, maximes the good
What is utilitarianismthe morally right action is that the one that produces the most net happiness
What is ethical egoismsays that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil for oneself
What are nonconsequentialist theories?Categorical imperative, kants theory, natural law theory, divine command theory
What is the natural law theorysays that the morally right action is the one that follows the dictates of nature
What is divine command theorythe morally right action is the one god commands
what is instrinsically valuable?things that have been regarded as valuable in themselves include happiness, pleasure, virtue, and beauty
What is instrumentally valuablethey are valuable as a a means to something else
What is Preeminence of Reasonthe consideration of reasons for whatever statements are in question ,
What is an moral theory intended to doan explanation of what makes an action right or what makes a person or thing good
What is the three criteria of the adequacy of a moral theory1. consistency with considered judgements, 2. consistency with moral experience 3. useefulness in moral problem solving
What does consistency with considered judgements meanto be worht evaluating a plausible scientific theory must be consistent with the data it was introduced to explain
What does consistency with our moral experiences meana moral theory should be consistent with moral background knowledge with what we take to be the fundamental facts of our moral experience
What does usefulness in moral problem solving meangood theories increase our understanding of the world and greater understanding leads to greater usefulness, the capacity to solve problems and answer questions
What does state of nature meana situation in which their is no central authority , autonimous individuals in a 'free for all"
what is psychological egoism the view that the motive for all our actions is self interest , whatever we do we do because we want to promote our own welfare
Hobbes is a social contract theorist
What is a social contract?an agreement among individuals in which all agree to give up some rights to ensure other rights and benfits
What are some objections to hobbes account?humans aren't so terrible , the state of nature isnt actual
Why be moral?its the right thing to do , to produce order in society
What is virtue ethicsa theory of morality that makes virtue the central concern
what does eudaimonia meanshappiness or florushing
What did aristole say about morality?the moral life consists not in following moral rules that stipulate right actions but in striving to be a particular kind of person
What is a virtuea stable disposition to act and feel according to some ideal or model of excellence
What is teleogolyeverything happens for a purpose
,What is the golden meanthe doctrine of the mean: every ethical virtue is a condition intermediate between two other states one involving excess and the other deficiency
What are the objections to utilitarnism it is a doctrine worthy of pigs, fails to be consisten with some considered judgements, fails to be useful in moral problem solving insofar as it is to demanding
What is hedonismthe view that the only good is happiness (pleasure)
What does impartially mean?everyone's suffering and happiness counts equally
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