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PHILO EXAM

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-12-12 17:51

Section 1

Question Answer
An unexamined life is not worth livingWhat Aristotle said
Love and WisdomPhilo & Sophia
PhilosophySearch for knowledge
Philosopher is a lover of wisdom.
(1) Object, (2) Consumes, (3) Without let-up3 elements in philosophical search
Philosopher searches the meaning of life-its importance, significance, value, and relevance.
a total world view in the unity of all truthNature and Scope of Philosophy
(1) logic, (2) ethics, (3) epistemology, (4) meta physics.philosophy is considered to have four main branches
Logicthe science of art of correct thinking
Ethicsthe science of morality of human acts
Epistemologythe theory of knowledge, the goal of which is truth
Metaphysicsthe foundation subject of all philosophy, it deals with human reality and system of human thought that seeks to explain the fundamental concept of man.
Cosomologythe study of inanimate things such as the universe, from the philosophical viewpoint
Aestheticsthe study of the beautiful
Rational or Philosophical Psychology the study of life principle of living things, especially that of man.
Theodicythe philosophical study of God.
Social philosophy the study of man in relation to the family, the state, and the church
Philosophy of man is the inquiry into man and his dimensions as person and as existent being in the world; his dignity, truth, freedom, justice, love, death, his relations with others and with God.
Greecewho thought the world was made out of water or air
Socrates, Plato, AristotleGreek triumvirate
ethics, logic, metaphysics, art, literature, psychology, biology, politics,Aristotle contributed significantly in the following area:
Thomas AquinasThe angelic doctor
Thomas Aquinasthe best philosopher in the Middle Ages.
(1) A History of Philosophy by William Frederick Copleston, (2) Realms of Philosophy by William Sahakian, (3) Approaches to Ethics by W.T. Jones et al3 excellent sources with comprehensive historical account of philosophical understanding
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Section 2

Question Answer
Thales” man has 80% water in his brain and 70% in his body, or a” man with a water stuff”
Thalesthe primary composition of everything was water, noting that everything was moist, and that if water evaporates it becomes either mist or air, and if frozen, could become earth.
Anaximenes” man is a body with condensed air …” To him the primary elements is determinate- air.
AnaximenesHe thus introduced the idea of condensation and rarefaction (e.g. to make thin or less dense)
AnaximenesAir when condensed can become “wind, cloud, water, earth, and finally stones,” and when rarefied can become fire.
Heraclitus”man has a fire stuff in his body in a form of heat…”
AnaximanderTo him, the primary element is indeterminate, to him neither water or air but infinite, eternal, and ageless the source of all worlds.
Anaximanderman is a human being that has evolved from animal of another species which is lower than his…”
AnaximanderHe talks of the evolution of animals from sea to the adaptation to environment and the origin of man.
ManPhilosopers defined as any human being endowed with reason
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Section 3

Question Answer
GODLY -HOLYBEFORE
IMMORTALBEFORE
PERFECTLY CREATEDBEFORE
PERFECT IN SYMMETRY AND IN HEALTHBEFORE
WISEBEFORE
TALK TO GOD FACE TO FACEBEFORE
THOUGHTS ARE GODLYBEFORE
CENTER OF LIFE IS GODBEFORE
PERFECT IN CHARACTERBEFORE
SEEK GODBEFORE
UNGODLY-UNHOLYAFTER
MORTAL-DIESAFTER
GRADUALLY DETERIORATESAFTER
SUCCUMBED TO SICKNESSAFTER
MIND IS DULL AND CLOUDEDAFTER
LOST SIGHT OF GODAFTER
LOST SIGHT OF GODAFTER
CENTER OF LIFE IS SELFAFTER
STAYS AWAY FROM GODAFTER
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Section 4

Question Answer
Philosophyis aimed to make a person/man a full man-cultured, refined and well-rounded
PhilosophyIt provides him the ability to synthesize, criticize, systematize, assimilate, and evaluate a variety and huge mass of knowledge.
provide opportunities to lead a life worthy of man’s dignity as an individual Important aspect of a mans total development
(1) serves as a bulwark against mental servitude (2) provides a framework within which he can think and act intelligently.importance of philosophy to any person is:
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Section 5

Question Answer
Socrates His father is a sculpture, his mother is a midwife
SocratesHis wife Xantippe, said to be an ugly woman, bore him three children
Socrates He would go to the Agora- market place, where he would discuss things, using the question and answer method.
Socrates He was arrested and condemned to death because of two charges:
(1) Impiety, because of not worshipping the gods of the state and introducing new and unfamiliar ways of worship, (2) Corruption of the minds of the young who would flock around himtwo charges that condemned Socrates to death
He did not admit any guilt, he refused to be set free by friends, and he died after drinking hemlock in the presence of friends.How did Socrates die?
(1) He employed “inductive arguments and “universal definitions”, (2) He called his ”practical method”, it took the form of “dialectic” or conversation;Socrates' philosophical contribution may be summed up thus:
Inductive reasoningis the process where a small observation is used to infer a larger theory, without necessarily proving it.
SocratesSaid that "knowledge is the way to ethical action"
SocratesSaid that “knowledge and virtue are one, in the sense that the wise man, he who know what is right, will also do what is right”
PlatoA pupil of Socrates
PlatoHe had an aristocratic upbringing, and was immersed in the culture of his day, but his plan, abetted by relatives, to enter politics, was abandoned after what he saw was done to Socrates.
(1) A man must know what is good so that he may do good, (2) Virtue can be taughtSalient points of Plato philosophy:
(1) Wisdom, (2) Courage, (3) Temperance, (4) Justice4 cardinal virtues
(1) Symposium, (2) The Republic, (3) PhaedrusBest known works of Plato
Symposiumwhich speaks of everything on earth is but a shadow of what is in the mind of God, the beauty of the earth but a shadow of divine Bounty.
The Republicwhich is about state, about the ideal government.
Phaedruswhich is about the nature of love.
Aristotleat 17 was Plato’s student at the Academy where he also taught until his teacher’s death.
Aristotlewent to Asia Minor where he became the tutor of Alexander of Macedonia who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotlefounded the school he called Lyceum
Aristotlehe feared persecution from Athenians consumed by anti-Macedonian feelings upon the death of Alexander.
(1) His father, (2) Plato, (3) Alexander the GreatAristotle philosophy was largely influenced by three factors:
Arsitotledefine man as a rational animal.
Arsitotleknowledge comes from the senses and can be true in itself
ArsitotleReality consist of matter and form, and matter is a continuous process of developing of becoming.
ArsitotleThere is a First Cause, source of all change, but is unchangeable itself. This, for him, is God.
ArsitotleThe goal of human life is happiness. To reach this is moderation or the avoidance of extremes.
ArsitotleThat the ideal state is one governed by a rule of law, a state ruled by the middle class.
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