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Pharmacology

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resexuwe's version from 2017-07-13 03:30

Obstertics Continued . . .

Question Answer
What is the MCC of 1st trimester maternal death?Ectopic pregnancy
What is the MCC of 1st trimester spontaneous abortions?Chromosomal abnormalities
What are the MCC of 3rd trimester spontaneous abortions?Anti-cardiolipin Ab, Placenta problems, Infection, and incompetent cervix
What is a threatened abortion?Cervix closed, baby intact (Tx: bed rest)
What is an inevitable abortion?Cervix open, baby intact (Tx: cerclage = sew cervix shunt until term)
What is an incomplete abortion?Cervix open, fetal remnant (Tx: D&C to prevent placenta infection)
What is an complete abortion?Cervix open, no fetal remnants (Test: b-HCG)
What is a missed abortion?Cervix closed, no fetal remnants (Tx: D&C)
What is a septic abortion?Fever >100 F, malodorous discharge
What is Placenta Previa?Post-coital bleeding, placenta covers cervical OS → Rupters placental arteries
What is Vasa Previa?Placenta AA, hang out of Cervix
What is Placenta Accereta?Placenta attached to superficial lining
What is Placenta Increta?Placenta invades into myometrium
What is Placenta Percenta?Placenta perforates though myometrium
What is Placenta Abruptio?Severe pain, premature separation of placenta
What is Velamentous Cord Insertion?Fetal Vessels insert between chorion and amnion
What is a Uterus Rupture?Tearing sensation, halt of delivery
What is an Apt test?Detects HbF in vagina
What is Wright's stain?Detects nucleated fetal RBC in Mom's vagina
What is a Kleihauer-Betke test?Detects percentage of fetal blood in maternal circulation (dilution test)
What is maternity blues?Post-partum crying, irritability
What is post-partum depression?Depression > 2wks
What is Post-partum psychosis?Hallucinations, suicidal, infanticial
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BIOSTATISTICS

 

Question Answer
What is the mean?Average
What is the Median?Middle value
What is the Mode?Most frequent value
What does Sensitivity tell you?People that have the disease w/ positive (+) test
What does Specificity tell you?People that don't have the disease w/ negative (-) test
What does PPV tell you?Probability of having a disease w/ positive (+) test
What doe NPV tell you?Probability of NOT having a disease if have a negative test
What does Incidence tell you?New cases (rate/unit time)
What does Prevalence tell you?Total cases (at one time)
What does the Odds Ratio tell you?Diseased are 10 x more likely to see risk factors
What does a Confidence Interval = 95% tell you?95% sure it lies within the interval (2-SD)
What does Relative Risk (RR) tell you?Risk of getting disease with known exposure
What is NNT?Number Needed to Treat to change 1 life
What does a (p) value < 0.5 tell you?Random chance that you will be wrong 1 time out of 20
What does a Null hypothesis tell you?Nothing's happening
What does a Power tell you?Probability of detecting a true intervention
What is a Type I error?P value error, (false negative) → “too optimistic”
What is a Type II error?Power error, (false positive) → “too pessimistic”
What is Accuracy?Validity (truth)
What is Precision?Reliability “keep making the same mistake”
What are the phases of clinical trials?(1) Phase I → toxicity “hurt pt?”, (2) Phase II → Efficacy “Help pt?”, (3) Phase III → Comparison “any better?”, (4) Phase IV → Post-marketing surveillance “can they screw it up?”
What is a Cohort study?Prospective study that provides incidence (new cases), uses RR
What is a Case Control Study?Retrospective study that provides prevalence (total cases), uses odds ratio
What is a Cross Sectional study?Provides prevalence “snapshot”
What is a Case Report?Describes an unusual pts
What is a Case Series Report?Describes several unusual pts
What are Consensus Panels?Panel of experts provides a recommendation
What is Clinical wisdom?“I think.....” paper
What is a Meta-analysis?Tries to combine data from many trials
memorize

PHARMACOLOGY

Question Answer
What drugs act as Haptens on platelets?(1) Aspirin (2) Heprin (3) Quinidine
What drugs act as Heptens on RBCs?“PAD PACS” → (1) Penicillamine, (2) a-MeDopa, (3) Dapsone, (4) PTU, (5) Anti-malarials, (6) Cephalosporine, (7) Sulfa drugs
What drugs wipe out the bone marrow (BM)?“ABCV” → (1) AZT aka (Zidovudine or Azidothymidine, (2) Benzene, (3) Chloramphenicol, (4) Vinblastine
What drugs wipe out granulocytes?(1) Cabaqmazapine (2) Clozapine (3) Ticlopidine
What drugs cause pulmonary fibrosis?(1) Busulfan (2) Bleomycin (3) Amiodarone (4) Tocainide (5) Methotrexate
What drugs dilate veins and arteries?(1) ACE-I (2) Nitrates
What are the anti-inflammatory actions of steroids?(1) Stabilizes Mast cells and Endothelium (2) Inhibits → Macrophage migration/ PLA, (3) Kills → T cells and Eosinophils
What do Opioid “Mu” receptors cause?Mental S/E (side effects)
What do Opioid “Kappa” receptors cause?Pain relief
What drugs have “Sulfur” in them?(1) ACE-I (2) Celocoxib (3) Loop diuretics (4) Thiazide (5) Sulfonylureas (6) Sulfonamides
What are the short-acting DM-1 drugs?(1) Lispro (2) Regular Insulin (3) Asparte
What are the intermediate-acting DM-1 drugs?(1) NPH (2) Lente
What are the long-acting DM-1 drugs?(1) Glargine (2) Ultralente
What drugs causes SLE?“HIPPPE” (1) Hydralizine (2) INH (3) Procainamide (4) Phenytoin (5) Penicillamine (6) Ethosuximide
What antibody is associated with “Drug-Induced Lupus”?Anti-Histone Ab
What drugs causes labor induction?(1) PGE2 – ripens cervix, (2) Oxytocin → Increases contractions, (3) Pitocin → Increases contractions
What drugs cause labor halt = “Tocolytics”?(1) Hydration (stop ADH = Oxytocin), (2) MgSO4 aka (Magnesium sulfate) → Decreases contractions, (3) Terbutaline → Decrease contractions, (4) Ritodrine → Increase Edema & decreases contractions
What drugs can be Nephrotoxic?Water-soluble drugs
What drugs can be Hepatotoxic?Fat-soluble drugs
How do you treat Acetaminophen overdose?N-acetylcysteine
How do you treat BZD overdose?Flumazenil
How do you treat B-blocker overdose?Glucagon
How do you treat Calcium Channel Blocker (CCB) overdose?Calcium Chloride + Glucagon
How do you treat Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning?100% O2
How do you treat Cu, Gold, Cd, Mercury, Arsenic poisoning?Penicillamine
How do you treat Cyanide poisoning?Amyl Nitrite
How do you treat Ethylene Glycol, MeOH overdose?(1) EtOH (2) Fomepizole
How do you treat Iron (Fe) overdose?Deferoxamine
How do you treat Fibrinolytic overdose?Aminocapropic Acid
How do you treat Heprin overdose?Protamine Sulfate
How do you treat Lithium overdose?Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate
How do you treat Nitrate overdose?Methylene blue
How do you treat Organophosphate poisoning?Atropine + Pralidoxime
How do you treat Opioid overdose?Naloxone
How do you treat (Pb) lead poisoning?Succimer
How do you treat Salicylate overdose?Charcoal or Bi-Carbonate
How so you treat TCA overdose?Bicarbonate (prevent arrhythmias)
How do you treat Theophylline overdose?Esmolol
How do you treat Warfarin overdose?Vitamin K
What drugs causes myositis?“RIPS” → (1) Rifampin (2) INH (3) Prednisone (4) Statins
What drugs causes disulfiram reaction?(1) Metronidazone, (2) Cephalosporine (3) Procarbazine
What drugs causes Dysgeusia?(1) Metronidazole, (2) Clarithromycin, and (3) Lithium
What anti-biotics are in a triple antibiotic?“Brand New Patient” → (1) Bacitracin, (2) Neomycin, (3) Polymyxin D
What is the 1-dose treatment for Chlamydia?Azithromycin
What are the 1-dose treatments for Gonorr?“Try to fix the fox with floxs” → (1) Ceftriaxone, (2) Cefixeme, (3) Cefoxilin
What dursg are treated with Vancomycin?“MRSA” → (1) MRSA, (2) S. Epididermis, (3) Enterococcus
What is the treatment for malaria?(1) Quinine → tinnitus, (2) Mefloauine → good liver, (3) Penetration, (4) Primaquice → revents releapse, (5) High bug resistance (6) Chloraquine → kills RBCs
What should you always remember when talking a test?You have been empowered... you now have a eyes of physio!
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