Pharmacology WCVM exam1

iqemallios's version from 2015-10-07 06:22

Section 1

Question Answer
Proteinated Form of Weak Acids = Non ionized
Proteinated Form of Weak Bases=Ionized
Like is ____ in LikeNon-ionized
Volume of DistributionApparent Fluid Volume which drug appears to be dissolved in.
First Pass Effect What Organ?Liver AND Intestine
What doesn't have a 1st pass effect?IV
What has half of the normal 1st pass effect?Rectally administered drugs.
Cats can't metabolize with ____?Glucuronidation
Pigs can't metabolize with _____?Sulphation (because pigs are smelly like sulfer)
Dogs can't metabolize with ____?Acetylation
Phase 1 biotransformation is typically?Oxidation
Phase 2 biotransformation is typically?Sulphation, glucuronidation, glutathione conjugation, acetylation
Phase 1 (esp glucoronidation) biotransformation occurs where in the cell?Smooth ER typically
Phase 1 biotransformation uses what enzyme?Cytochrome p450 (monoxygenases)
Phase 2 alias?Conjugation
Key RXNRH + O2 + NADPH --> ROH + H20 + NADP+ (which eventually gains H+ and becomes NADPH)
Rank organs for biotransformation powerLiver > Lung, Intestine, Kidney > Skin, Testes, Placenta, Adrenals > nervous system
2 important things for drug metabolism?Increase: Water solubility and excretion
Glucuronidation enzyme and cofactorUDP-glucoronayl transferase, UDP-glucoronic acid
Sulfation enzyme and cofactorSulfotransferase, PAPS (probably this cofactor will be on exam!)
Acetylation enzyme and cofactorN-acetyltransferase, acetyl coA
Glutathion conjugationGlutathione S. Transferase, C.Glutathione
Major way acetominophen is conjugated?#1 = Glucuronidation (remember tylenol kills cats fast), #2= Sulfation
OATS are found?Proximal Tubules
3 very important extra-renal excretion?Biliary, Pulmonary, Lactation
Enterohepatic cycling?Drugs excreted in bile then reabsorbed through intestines again. Prolongs halflife. NB: 1st pass effect valid
Drug interactions generalEffect ADME (D M A E) plus food-drug interactions
Summation2+2=4 eg. 2 opioids
Synergism2+2=8 eg. opioid and nsaid
Potentiation2+0=8 eg. opioid and antihistamine
Antagonism2+2=1 eg. competative inhibition
Drug interactions DCometition for plasma protein binding sites
Drug interactions MInteraction during biotransformation
Drug interaction AGI tract altered PH
Drug Interaction ETransporter competition for excretion
Drug interaction FoodMaybe inducing cyp450 (eg grapefruit juice), or bind drug (eg ABs)
PKA + PH Which is more readily absorbed?Just know it and bring calculator
Which is more dangerous? 0 order, 1st order, 2nd order drug elimiation?0 order, as transporters are saturated (overdose easy)
How many halflives to steady state?4
How many halflives to complete elimination?7
What is an orphan receptor?A receptor with no known physiological fcn. (No endogenous ligand)
Potency =total response seen from drug
Efficiency = required effective dose 50
Theraputic indexLD50/ED50
Margin of safetyLD1/ED99

Section 2

Question Answer
What animals do you test before Vancristine admin?Collies and mixed breeds
Baroreceptor Reflex?Increased arterial pressure = decreased heart rate (+CO)
Normal ANS active nervous control of heart?Parasympathetic
What body location doesnt have parasympathetic innervation?Arterioles
Nitric Oxide Action?Vascular Smooth MM relaxation

Section 3

Question Answer
Cholinergic neurotransmitter synthesis Inhibitor Hemicholinium
Cholinergic Vesicular storage of neurotransmitter inhibitorVesamicol
Cholinergic Neruotransmitter release inhibitorBotulinum toxin (think flaccid paralysis of people's botox faces)
Cholinergic Neruotransmitter release promotorBlack widow spider venom
Cholinergic neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitorNONE
Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Metabolism inhibitorCholinesterase Inhibitors
Adrenergic Neurotransmitter synthesis inhibitorMetyrosine
Adrenergic Vesicular storage of neurotransmitter inhibitorReserpine
Adrenergic Neurotransmitter release inhibitorbretylium
Adrenergic Neurotransmitter Release promotorAmphetamine
Adrenergic neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitorcocaine
Adrenergic Neurotransmitter metabolism inhibitorMonoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI's)