Pharmacology Study Guide

waveurflag's version from 2018-02-06 14:42

Section 1

Question Answer
CarbacholDirect Acting Choline Ester, for glaucoma
BethanecolDirect Acting Choline Ester, for atonic bladder
PilocarpineDirect Acting Alkaloid, for glaucoma & promotes salivation
EdrophoniumIndirect Reversible AChE Inhibitor, for Myasthenia Gravis (strengthens muscle)
PhyostigmineIndirect Reversible AChE Inhibitor, for glaucoma, atonic bladder, and ACh overdose
Neostigmine Indirect Reversible AChE Inhibitor, for glaucoma, atonic bladder, NOT for ACh overdose
Pyridostigmine Indirect Reversible AChE Inhibitor, for chronic Myasthenia Gravis & ACh overdose
Donepezil Indirect Reversible AChE Inhibitor, for Alzheimer's Disease
Synthetic Organophosphates (Sarin)Indirect Irreversible AChE Inhibitor, TOXIC, over-stimulation due to excess ACh
Echothiophate Indirect Irreversible AChE Inhibitor, permanently inhibits receptor, HIGHLY TOXIC
Praloxidime (PAM)Used to combat poisoning by organophosphates

Section 2

Question Answer
AtropineAntimuscarinic, aka Belladonna, causes mydriasis, lowers HR and reduces GI and urinary motility. Works with pyridostigmine to remove sarin poisoning
ScopolamineAntimuscarinic, used for motion sickness but has major CNS effects (euphoria, loss of short term memory, etc.)
Ipratropium M3 Blocker, induces bronchodilation, inhaled 4 times a day
Tiotropium M3 Blocker, stronger response, induces bronchodilation, inhaled once a day (aka Spiriva)
TropicamideAntimuscarinic, causes mydriasis and cyclopegia (paralysis of cilliary muscle in eye)
BentztropineAntimuscarinic, used to treat Parkinson's Disease, but largely replaced by dopas
Tolterodine Antimuscarinic, used to treat overactive bladder, causes dry mouth (anti-SLUDD) and blurred vision (mydriasis)
NicotineGanglionic Blocker, in cigarette smoke, enhanced release of dopamine & NE, can increase BP and HR
Tubocurarine & the 'oniums/curiums'Non-Depolarizing NM Blocker, inhibits contraction & causes paralysis, anesthesia, INJECTION ONLY
SuccinylcholineDepolarizing NM Blocker, MORE rapid than non-depolarizing, profound relaxation, prevents gastric aspiration during surgery

Section 3

Question Answer
IsoproterenolDirect β1 and β2 Agonist, rarely used therapeutically, increases HR, CO, and BP
DopamineDirect β1 and β2 Agonist, higher doses can stimulate α, increases vasodilation & cardiac output, used for cardiogenic and septic shock
OxymetazolineDirect α1 and α2 Agonist, vasoconstrictor and decongestant, used for red eyes & stuffy nose, aka Afrin Nasal Spray
PhenylephrineDirect α1 Agonist, vasoconstrictor, nasal congestion and ophthalmic hyperemia relief
Albuterol & Terbutaline Direct Short Acting β2 Agonist (SABA), bronchodilators, can cause tachycardia & tremors
SalmeterolDirect Long Acting β2 Agonist (LABA), for nocturnal asthma (lasts 12hrs),
AmphetamineIndirect Adrenergic Agonist (α, β, and CNS stimulant), releases NE from storage, very bad, can increase BP
CocaineIndirect Adrenergic Agonist (α, β, and CNS stimulant), blocks NET & increases NE, small dose can have a MASSIVE effect
EphedrineMixed-Action Adrenergic Agonist, releases NE and activates α/β receptors, increases alertness & Athletic performance
Pseudophedrine (SUDAFED)Mixed-Action Adrenergic Agonist, releases NE and activates α/β receptors, nasal decongestant, can make meth out of it, not good for hypertensive patients

Section 4

Question Answer
PhenoxybenzamineNon-Selective α Blocker, LONG lasting, irreversible & noncompetitive, lowers vasoconstriction and blood pressure but RAISES heart rate (tachycardia), used for hypertensive crisis before surgery, and pheochromocytoma (hormone secreting tumor)
PhentolamineNon-Selective α Blocker, SHORTER lasting, irreversible & noncompetitive,lowers vasoconstriction and blood pressure but RAISES heart rate (tachycardia), used for short term treatment of pheochromocytoma (hormone secreting tumor)
TamsulosinSelective α1 Blocker, no effect on α2 so it does NOT cause tachycardia, used for BPH to increase urine flow, lowers BP, side effect: orthostatic hypotension
YohimbineSelective α2 Blocker, no effect on α1, so it increases NE and heart rate to induce vasoconstriction, also a good sexual stimulant
PropanololNon-Selective β Blocker, lowers BP, contraction force, and CO, but causes vasoconstriction and an increase in insulin levels (caution with asthma and hypoglycemic patients)
Timolol & NadololNon-Selective β Blockers, more potent than propanolol, increases aqueous humor in glaucoma patients but does NOT change pupil size
Atenolol (and all the 'olols')Selective β1 Blocker, used to treat hypertensive patients, cardioselective, little effect on pulmonary function
Pindolol & Acebutololβ1 Blockers with ISA (partial agonist or intrinsic sympathetic activity), weakly stimulate β receptors due to ISA blocking NE, used for hypertensive patients with moderate bradycardia (doesn't effect heart rate as much as Selective β1 Blockers)
Labetolol & Carvedilolα1 and β Blockers, lowers BP and causes vasodilation (by blocking α1), used in hypertensive patients where a high PVR is not desirable, can cause orthostatic hypotension

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