Pharmacology Compilation of Experiments

allelipraise's version from 2017-10-24 18:35

Section 1

Question Answer
Anthraquinone glycosidesa group of compounds whose aglycones have a stucture related to polycylic anthracene
Aglyconesnon sugar moieties
Cascara Sagrada, aloe, senna, rhubardGive at least 3 drugs with Anthraquinone glycoside
Stimulant CatharticsUses of anthraquinone glycosides
Used as aphrodisiac and counterirritatnt due to its strong irritant properties andUse of CHRYSAROBIN
Glycosides of anthranols and anthronesHave reduced derivatives of anthraquinone
Glycosides of anthranols and anthronescathratic action
Anthranols and AnthronesThis glycosides yield aglycones when hydrolyze
AglyconeGlycoside with configuration of di-, -tri-, or tetrahydroxyanthraquinones or modifications of these compounds
Glycone (glucose & rhamnose)Exert their actions, with the require the presence of the sugar component?
Free anthraquinones exhibit little therapeutic activityWithout glycones ?
Vanilla( Vanilla pods)Consist of cured fully grown, but upripe fruits of Vanilla fragrans
Vanilla fragransUnripe fruits of vanilla?
Vanilla fragranscultivated in tropical countries where temperature does not fall below 18 C and humidity is high.
Vanilla fragranspropagated by means of cuttings and after two or 3 years reaches the flowing stage
Green vanillacontains glycosides, namely gluco-vanillin (vanilloside) and glucovanilic alcohol
Curingacted upon by an oxidizing and hydrolyzing enzyme which occurs in all parts of the plant
Glucovanilic AlcoholYields on hydrolysis glucose and vanillic alcohol
Latter compoundoxidation converted into vanilic aldehyde (or vanillin)
Glucovanillin yields on hydrolysis glucose and vanillin
Confectionery / PerfumeUses of vanilla pods

Section 2

Question Answer
Acid base indicatora substance that changes color according to the acidity/basicity of its environment
Molecular reaarangementchanges in color due to the hydrogen ion conc. in the solution
Anthocyaninproposed by marquart denotes blue pigment of the cornflower
Anthocyanindinssugar-free pigments
Flavylium (2-phenylbenzopyrilium)Common structure of all anthocyanidins
Pelargonidin/ Cyaniding/ DelphinidinNatural anthocyanidins grps
Partitioning between immiscible solvents, by absorption spectra/colors in buffer How to distinguish anthocyanins?
the increase in number of hydroxy groupsDeepening of visible color of anthocynanins is brought by
Orange - Red colorColor of pelargonidin
deep-red colorColor of Cyaniding
bluish-red colorColor of delphinidin
pH, complex-forming metals, tanninsFactors affecting colors of anthocyanin
RedAnthocyanins under acidic
VioletAnthocyanins under neutral
BLueAnthocyanins under alkaline
coexistence of several anthocyanincsFactors affecting colors of anthocyanin
RedColor in cationic form
VioletColor in base

Section 3

Question Answer
Volatile oils odoriferous principles found in plant parts, when exposed to air at ordinary temp. evaporates
Ethereal/ Essential oils / EssenceAnother name for Volatile oils
Lamiaceaeglandular hairs
LauraceaeOil cells
PinaceaeDucts or cannals
RutaceaeCavities/ Glands
Resinify when exposed to airOils associated with gums and resins
Bitter almond /mustard oilsVolatile oils occur as glycosides?
Insect repellent/attractants flavoring/perfumery Uses of Volatile oils
sponge/ ecuelle methodExpressions process
4-8 hrsTime require for distillation

Section 4

Question Answer
Determining purity and valueAnalysis of volatile oils for?
Appearance/ odor/ colorPurity and quality of volatile oils may be observe by?
determination of sp gr/ rotatory power/ refractive indexPurity and quality of volatile oils may be observe by?
Refractionbending of light
Snell's LawExtent of refraction
Snell's Lawration of sine of the angle of incidence (i) to the sine of angle refraction (r) is equal to the ratio of the velocity of light in air (v1) to the velocity of light in the medium (v2)
Refractive Indexthe ratio is a constant for any substance at a given temp,
Abbe refractometerrefractive index of a volatile oil is determined by the use of ?
20 CMeasurement of the refractive indices of official VO is required to be performed at what temperature?
30 CTemperature of Rose oil
1.46 - 1.61 at 20 C index of refraction values?

Section 5

Question Answer
Volatile Oildscomplex products composed of widely variant chemical characteristics
Hydrocarbonunoxygenated monoterpenes/sesquiterpenes
Oxygenatedderivatives of terpenes and nonterpenes
Terpene Derivativesformed via acetate mevalonate pathyway
aromatic(nonterpene)formed via the shimic acid and phenylpropanoid route
Oxygenated constituents which are soluble in water but more soluble in alcoholOdor and taste of VO are determined by
Organic Solvents (alcohol/ ether/chloroform)Volatile oils are generally soluble to
Dilute alcoholVolatile oils are More or less readily soluble to
70-90% alcoholVO exhibit almost constant solubility in ?
Hydrocarbonsacyclic series (heptane)
Alcoholspresent both in the free state and in combination with acid as esters (menthol)
Acidssometimes present in free state in small quantities (acetic)
Esters(methyl acetate)
Sulfur compounds (mustard oil)
Refractometry/ polarimetryQuality and purity of VO are determined by ?
Volumetric Methods ( titrimetry)Chemical Constituents of VO are determined by?