Pharmacology (Chapt. 1-3)

jasmine's version from 2015-10-26 21:57

Section 1

Question Answer
DrugAny chemical that can affect living processes
Clinical PharmacologyThe study of drugs in humans
PharmacologyThe study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
TherapeuticsThe medical use of drugs
SelectivityExample: The nurse teaches a patient to avoid engaging in hazardous activities when taking an antihistamine for allergy symptoms
Low CostExample: The nurse explains that a generic form of a newly prescribed drug is available to a patient who has limited insurance for drugs
Reversible ActionExample: The nurse researches if an antidote is available when administering drugs that have the potential to cause significant harm or death
Freedom From InteractionsExample: the nurse administers ciprofloxacin (Cipro) through a second intravenous line separate from all other drugs
Possession of a Simple Generic NameExample: The nurse explains that quinapril and Accupril are names for the same drug
EffectivenessExample: The nurse reassesses the patient 20-30 minutes after administering an opiate analgesic
Ease of AdministrationExample: During discharge teaching, the nurse assesses if the patient will be able to take a prescribed drug 4 times a day as ordered
SafetyExample: When a patient is or could be pregnant, the nurse researches the pregnancy category of every drug administered
Chemical StabilityExample: The nurse teaches patients that the medicine cabinet is a bad place to store medications because the heat and humidity can damage the drug
PredictabilityExample: The nurse is aware that African Americans often do not respond as well as Caucasians to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE I) prescribed for hypertension
Which patient would have the highest priority when providing nursing care to multiple patients? A patient who received oral drugs 1 hour ago and has complained of tingling around his or her mouth to the nursing assistant
Which nursing action would best meet the therapeutic objective of drug therapy?Assessing the patient for adverse effects of drug therapy
Ways to Exercise Discretion Regarding New DrugsBe neither the first to adopt the new nor the last to abandon the old; Balance potential benefits against inherent risks; and New drugs generally present greater risks than old ones
Limitations of the Testing ProcedureLimited information for women and children; and Failure to detect all adverse effects
Stages of New Drug DevelopmentPre-clinical testing (Performed on animals and may take 1-5 years, and are evaluated for toxicities, pharmacokinetic properties, and potentially useful biologic effects); and Clinical testing (Performed on humans, and may take 2-10 years), which includes Phase I (Consists of 3 goals: evaluating drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and biologic effects; Conducted in healthy volunteers, however if drug is likely to have severe side effects, as many anti-cancer drugs do, the trial is done in volunteer patients who have the disease under consideration), Phase II and III (Tested on patients; Objective is to determine therapeutic effects, dosage range, safety, and effectiveness; Upon completion of Phase III, the drug manufacturer applies to the FDA for conditional approval of a New Drug Application; If approved, Phase IV starts), and Phase IV (Post-marketing surveillance; The new drug is released for general use, permitting observation of its effects in a large population; The 2007 FDA Amendments Act made post-marketing surveillance much more effective than in past)
New Drug Development The randomized controlled trial: Control use, randomization, and blinding

Section 2

Question Answer
Right DocumentationNoting the reason for the patient not receiving a scheduled drug in the nurse's notes
Right DoseChecking the original prescriber's order when the dose of the drug that is sent from the pharmacy is different from the dose noted on the medication administration record
Right PatientAsking the patient to state his/her birth date and comparing to the medication record before administering a drug
Right RouteChecking to see if a drug can be crushed before crushing it when a patient has difficulty swallowing
Right DrugIdentifying a logical reason for a patient to receive each prescribed drug by comparing the patient's current medical problems with list of drugs to be administered
Right TimeAdministering a rapid-acting insulin that has an onset of 10-20 minutes and is prescribed for 0800 no sooner than 15 minutes before breakfast
The nurse is preparing to administer an anti-hypertensive drug (medication that lowers the blood pressure). The nurse assesses the patient's blood pressure at 110/70 mm Hg, which is within normal limits. What action should the nurse take at this time? Assess the patient's baseline blood pressure and the blood pressure before and after the last dose of this medication to determine if the medication should be administered
It would be a priority for the nurse to withhold a drug and contact the prescriber if a patient reported an allergy to the drug with which type of symptom that occurred shortly after the last time he/she took the drug? Wheezing
Which postoperative patient assessment would warrant withholding an opiate analgesic that depresses the central nervous system (CNS)?Respirations at 9/min
Which nursing diagnosis would be most appropriate for a patient who is receiving an opiate analgesic that depresses the central nervous system (CNS) every 3 hours? Risk for injury
A patient who is admitted to the nursing unit from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is moaning in pain. the patient is due for another dose of pain medication. What is the nursing priority at this time? Assess the patient's vital signs, tubes, and surgical site
The nurse is preparing to administer insulin based on the patient's metered blood glucose level. Which action could be delegated to a licensed practical/vocational nurse (LPN/LVN)?Obtaining the meter blood glucose level

Section 3

Question Answer
AcetaminophenGeneric Name
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamideChemical Name
TylenolTrade Name
The same _____ name is never used for more than one medicationGeneric
_____ name tells the nurse the active ingredients of the drugChemical
The _____ name of a drug will be the same no matter which company produces the drugGeneric
The _____ name may suggest the action of the drug such as PhosLo which lowers phosphorusBrand or Trade
_____ names of drugs in the same therapeutic class often have a similar suffix making them easy to identifyGeneric
Nursing drug reference books are usually organized by ______ namesGeneric
Fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, quinapril, and ramipril are examples of _____ namesGeneric
When preparing discharge instructions for a patient, what should the nurse do?Review the prescriptions written for discharge and include the stated trade name and generic name in discharge teaching
A patient has been taking a trade-name drug for a chronic condition for several years. Recent changes in his insurance plan require the use of generic drugs whenever they are available. The patient asks the nurse if he should pay out of pocket to continue receiving the trade-name drug. The nurse's response should be based on which facts?That frequent monitoring of blood levels is important when changing from trade-name to generic drugs for patients whose therapeutic blood level is not far from the dangerous or toxic level; and That generic drugs contain the same active ingredients as their trade-name counterparts
The nurse is teaching a patient about tamsulosin (Flomax), which has been prescribed for difficulty voiding due to an enlarged prostate. Because the patient travels extensively and not all countries require prescriptions to get drugs, what is important for the nurse to teach the patient?That a drug labeled Flomax may have different active ingredients in different countries
Which resources most likely provide current complete positive and negative information about a drug?Pharmacists and Poison control centers
The little problems with generic names More complicated than trade names; 3 or more syllables instead of 2 or more
The big problems with trade namesSingle drug can have multiple trade names; United States drugs and drugs outside of the United States may have different active ingredients
Over-The Counter-DrugsWith most illnesses (60 to 95 percent), initial therapy consists of self-care, including self-medication with an OTC drug; The average home medicine cabinet contains 24 OTC preparations
Medication ReconcilationThe process of creating the most accurate list possible of all medications a patient is taking — including drug name, dosage, frequency, and route — and comparing that list against the physician's admission, transfer, and/or discharge orders, with the goal of providing correct medications
Dietary SupplementsA product intended for ingestion that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to add further nutritional value to (supplement) the diet. A "dietary ingredient" may be one, or any combination, of the following substances: a vitamin. a mineral. an herb or other botanical.
Sources of Drug Information (People) Clinicians and pharmacists, poison control centers, and pharmaceutical sales representatives
Sources of Drug Information (Text-like Books) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics by Goodman & Gilman; Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach; and Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs
Sources of Drug Information (Published Information) Newsletters (i.e., the medical letter on drugs and therapeutics and prescriber's letter), Reference books (i.e., Physician's Desk Reference, Drug Facts and Comparisons, and Nursing drug references), and the Internet
Are generic products versus brand-name products therapeutically equivalent? Yes
Would a difference between brand-name and generic products justify the use of trade names? Yes

Section 4

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