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Pharmacology 2 (TQ)

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kmagic246's version from 2015-05-16 03:35

Antidotes

ToxinAntidote/Treatment
5-FUthymidine
Acetaminophen & Cystic FibrosisN-acetylcysteine (regenerate glutathione)
ACh, AchEsterase inhibitors, organophosphatesAtropinefollowed by pralidoxime
AlcoholismDilsulfiram aka ANTABUSE (inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase = quicker hangover)
AmmoniumBenzoate, Phenylbutyrate or Lactulose.
AmphetaminesNH4Cl (urine acidification) → ammonium cholride
Anticholinergic agents, AntimuscarinicPhysostigmine salicylate
BenzodiazepinesFlumazenil (Ben get off the flu))
Beta blockersGlucagon
Carbon monoxide100% oxygen, Hyperbaric oxygen
Cisplatinamifostine
Contrast dieN-acytlecystine
CopperPenicillamine (pennies made out of ____)
Cyanide (CN)Sodium Thiosulfate (Sulfur + O2) (converts CN --> SCN --> excreted in urine), Nitrite (NO2), hydroxocobalamin,
Cyclophosphamide (anti-cancer, cross-link DNA)Mesna
Digitalis/DigoxinK+, Mg2+, anti-dig Fab, , Stop dig
HeparinProtamine sulfate (postive charge binds to the negative charged drug). Use Lepiridine if Heparain Induced Thrombocytopenia
IronDeferoxamine, Dexrazoxane
LeadEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer (kids), penicillamine
Malignant HyperthermiaDantrolene (↓ Ryanodine= ↓ Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum)
Mercury, arsenic (GARLIC BREATH),
gold (heavy metals)
Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer (for kids)
Methanol, ethylene glycolfomepizole (inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase) (Ethanol, dialysis)
MethemoglobinMethylene blue, vitamin C
OpioidsNaloxone/Naltrexone
Salicylates (aspirin)NaHCO3 (urine alkalinization) - bicarb
TCAsNaHCO3 (serum alkalinization)
Theophylline (caffeine)Beta blocker
TMP/SMX or MethotrexateLeucovorin aka folinic acid
Torsades de pointesMg+/K+
tPA, streptokinaseAminocaproic acid
WarfarinVitamin K, fresh frozen plasma
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Antimicrobial Drug Names

Question Answer
-azoleErgosterol synthesis inhibitor Ketoconazole
-bendazoleAntiparasitic/antihelmintic Mebendazole
-cillinPeptidoglycan synthesis inhibitor Ampicillin
-cyclineProtein synthesis inhibitor Tetracycline
-ivirNeuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir
-navirProtease inhibitor Ritonavir
-ovirDNA polymerase inhibitor Acyclovir
-thromycinMacrolide antibiotic Azithromycin
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CNS Drug Names

Question Answer
-aneInhalational general anesthetic Halothane
-azineTypical antipsychotic Thioridazine
-barbitalBarbiturate Phenobarbital
-caineLocal anesthetic Lidocaine
-etineSSRI Fluoxetine
-ipramineTCA Imipramine
-triptan5-HT 1B/1D agonists Sumatriptan
-triptylineTCA Amitriptyline
-zepamBenzodiazepine Diazepam
-zolamBenzodiazepine Alprazolam
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Autonomic Drug Names

Question Answer
-cholCholinergic agonist Bethanechol/carbachol
-curium or -curoniumNon-depolarizing paralytic Atracurium or vecuronium
-ololβ-blocker Propranolol
-stigmineAChE inhibitor Neostigmine
-terolβ2 -agonist Albuterol
-zosinα1-antagonist Prazosin
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Cardiovascular Drug Names

Question Answer
-afilPDE-5 inhibitor Sildenafil
-dipineDihydropyridine CCB Amlodipine
-prilACE inhibitor Captopril
-sartanAngiotensin-II receptor blocker Losartan
-statinHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Atorvastatin
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Other Drug Names

Question Answer
-dronateBisphosphonate Alendronate
-glitazonePPAR-γ activator Rosiglitazone
-prazoleProton pump inhibitor Omeprazole
-prostProstaglandin analog Latanoprost
-tidineH2 -antagonist Cimetidine
-tropinPituitary hormone Somatotropin
-ximabChimeric monoclonal Ab Basiliximab
-zumabHumanized monoclonal Ab Daclizumab
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Signature Drug Toxicities

ToxicityDrug
Acne + Immunosuppression + HTN + Hyperglycemia + OsteoporosisGlucocorticosteroids
AgranulocytosisClozapine, Chloramphenical, Anti-thyroid, Dapsone (TMP/SMX substitute), Colchicine (stabilizes microtubules)
AngioedemaACE-inhibitors, ARBs
Aplastic AnemiaChloramphenicol, NSAIDs, Benzene
Atropine-like Side EffectsTricyclics
Bradycardia, impotence, asthma excerbationbeta-blockers
CardiotoxicityDoxorubicin , Daunorubicin
Cartilage Damage in ChildrenFluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
Cinchonism (headache + tinnitus)Quinidine (Double Quarter Pounder = Class IA Na+ blocker to treat arrhythmias)
CoughACE Inhibitors (↑ bradykinin)
Cyanide ToxicityNitroprusside
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, Ebstein's AnomalyLithium (Txt w/ Amiloride)
Disulfiram-like EffectMetronidazole, Cephalosporins, Sulfonylureas (1st generation), (MC'S drink alcohol) = ↑ in acetaldehyde (b/c of ↓ in acetaldehyde reductase)
Dry mouth, sedation, severe rebound HTNClonidine (alpha2-agonist)
Extrapyramidal Side EffectsAntipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
Fanconi’s SyndromeExpired tetracycline
Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis)Valproic Acid, Halothane, Acetaminophen
First dose orthostatic hypotensionalpha1-blockers (-zosin)
Flacial Redness & FlushingNiacin (B3) --> prevent w/ Aspirin (Niacin can be made in liver from Tryptophan)
Gingival hyperplasia + hirsutism, anemia + teratogen (fetal hydantoin syndrome)Phenytoin
Gray Baby SyndromeChloramphenicol
Gray Man SyndromeAmiodarone
GynecomastiaCimetidine, Azoles, Spironolactone, Digitalis
Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiencySulfonamides, Isoniazid, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Primaquine
HepatitisIsoniazid (INH --> N = neurotoxicity = prevent w/ B6, H = hepatotoxicity)
HepatotoxicityAmiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT), Lovastatin (HMG-CoA reductase = ↓LDL ), Clofibrate (Fibrates = ↓TGs)
HypercalcemiaHCTZ (Na/Cl) (loops loose Ca2+)
Hypertrichosis (excessive hair growth)Minoxidil (Rogaine)
HypokalemiaLoop diuretics (Na,2K,Cl), Thiazide
HypocalcemiaLoop diuretics (loop = loose Ca2+ vs. Thiazide = do not loose Ca2+)
Hot Flashes, FlushingNiacin, Tamoxifen, Ca++ Channel Blockers
Increase QT interval (Torsades de pointes - V-fib)Macrolides, Chloroquine, Haloperidol, Risperidone, Rotonavir, Quinidine (Class IA Na+ blocker), Sotalol (Class III K+ blocker)
Induce CP450Chronic alcohol, Modafinil, St. Johns wort, Phenytoin, Phenobarbitol, Neviripine (NNRTI), Rifampin, Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine
Inhibit CP450Cimetidine, Ketoconazole (MAGIC RACKS in GQ)
Interstitial NephritisMethicillin, NSAIDs (except Aspirin), Furosemide, Sulfonamides
Malignant HyperthermiaSuccinylcholine (Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocker)
Metabolic AlkalosisLoop diuretics
Monday DiseaseNitroglycerin , Industrial exposure → tolerance during week → loss of tolerance during weekend → headache, dizziness upon re-exposure
Myositis (increased Creatine Kinase)Statins, Fibrates (Clofibrate), Glucocorticoids, Colchicine, IFN-alpha
NephrotoxicityCyclosporin, Cisplatin, Amphotericin B
Nephrotoxicity + OtotoxicityAminoglycoside, Vancomycin, Loop Diuretics, Cisplatin
Orange (Red) Body FluidsRifampin
OsteoporosisHeparin, Corticosteroids
OtotoxicityAminoglycosides
Phocomelia "seal limbs"Thalidomide
PhotosensitivitySulfanamides, Amiodarone, Tetracycline (SAT for photo) (Sulfanamides = antibiotic, sulfonylurea, loop & HCTZ diuretics)
Positive Coombs’ TestMethyldopa
PriapismTrazodone (TrazoBONE)
Pseudomembranous colitisClindamycin & Ampicillin
Pulmonary FibrosisBleomycin, Amiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT)
Pulmonary Hypertension (RVH)Fenfluramine (FEN-PEN Anti-obesity meds)
Red Man SyndromeVancomycin
Reflexive Tachycardiaany med that vasodilates (CCB = Nefidipine, Nitrates, Hydralazine)
RhabdomyolysisStatins & Fibrates (Lovastatin, Clofibrate)
Severe HTN with TyramineMAOIs
Lupus-like SyndromeHydralazine, INH, Phenytoin, Procainamide (Class IA anti-arrhythmic - blocks Na+ channels) (SHIPP)
Sexual dysfunction ( ↓ orgasm, ↓libido)SSRIs
SIADHCarbamazepine (anti-seizure)
Steven-Johnson SyndromePCN, Sulfanamides, Seizure, Allopurinol (Sulfa + Allopurinol)
Tardive DyskinesiaAntipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine) Clozapine=only antipsychotic to not give you tardive dyskinesia
Teeth discolorationTetracyclines
TinnitusAspirin, Quinidine (Double Quarter Pounder = Class IA Na+ blocker to treat arrhythmias)
Torsades de PointesSotatol (Class III K+ blocker)
Thyroid (hypo/hyper)Amiodarone (PFT, LFT, TFT)
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