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Pharmacokinetic Model

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allelipraise's version from 2017-10-22 16:50

Section 1

Question Answer
Pharmacokinetic Model Are hypotheses that utilize mathematical terms to quantitatively describe relationships in biological processes in the body.
Compartment ModelingEmpirical Model
Compartment ModelingDescribes the fate of a drug in the body, depicted as an entity divided into compartments.
Compartment Modeling(Absorption)Drug leaves the site of administration
Compartment Modeling(Distributionenter a central compartment, from which it is both exchanged with peripheral compartments
Compartment Modeling(Metabolism & Excretion)irreversibly eliminated
compartmenta group of tissues with similar blood flow and drug affinity.
Compartment Modelingused approach to pharmacokinetic characterization of drug.
Compartment ModelingType of model that interpolate the experimental data and allow on empirical formula to estimate drug concentration with time
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Section 2

Question Answer
Series or Parallel to each otherThe body is represented as a series of compartment arranged
first order kineticsThe rate of drug movement between compartment is described by?
Rate constants used to represent rate of entry into and exit from compartment.
Statistical analysis of plasma concentration time datamethod used to find the number of compartments.
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Section 3

Question Answer
both normal and pathological conditions.Predicts drug concentration time profile in?
therapeutic and toxic effects in body.useful in relating plasma drug levels in?
drug dispositionGives a visual representation of various rate processes involved in?
• Mammillary model • Catenary modelTypes of Compartment Models
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Section 4

Question Answer
Mammillary model Most commonly used compartment model.
Mammillary model Consists of 1 or more peripheral compartments connected to the central compartment
rapidly equilibrate with the drug.The central compartment comprises of plasma and highly perfused tissues (lungs, liver, kidneys) which?
peripheral compartments those with low vascularity and poor perfusion .
BloodDistribution of drugs to these peripheral compartments is through?
characteristic first-order rate constants denoted by letter kMovement of drug between compartments is defined by?
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Section 5

Question Answer
Catenary modelcompartments are joined to one another in a series like compartments of a train.
as the various organs are directly linked to the blood compartment.NOT observable physiologically/anatomically
Catenary modelrarely used
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Section 6

Question Answer
One Compartment Open ModelSimplest model
Instantaneous Distribution ModelOne Compartment Open Model another name?
unidirectional and that the drug can be eliminated from the body“OPEN” means that the absorption and elimination are?
One Compartment Open Modelused to describe plasma levels following the administration of a single dose
single, kinetically homogeneous unit that has no barriers to the movement of drug.In OCOM the body is considered as a?
instantaneously and maintained at all times.In OCOM, Final distribution equilibrium between the drug in plasma and other body fluids is attained?
One Compartment Open ModelThis model thus applies only to those drugs that distribute rapidly throughout the body.
Drugs move dynamically, in of this compartment.In OCOM, during absorption?
Drugs move dynamically, out of this compartment.In OCOM, during elimination?
Eliminationa first-order process with first-order rate constant.
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Section 7

Question Answer
takes about one to three minutes for complete circulationWhen a drug that distributes rapidly in the body is given in the form of a rapid intravenous injection
neglected in calculationsIN OCOM, rate of absorption is?
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Section 8

Question Answer
OCOM IV Bolus AdmDescribes the distribution and elimination after an IV bolus administration
rapid and the declines in drug concentration in the plasma and tissues will be proportional.In OCOM IV Bolus Adm, assumes distribution to tissues is?
first-order process.In OCOM IV Bolus Adm, The rate of elimination is?
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Section 9

Question Answer
Elimination Rate Consant Total removal or elimination of the injected drug from this compartment is affected by metabolism (biotransformation) and excretion.
Drug in the bodyComputed via first order process
Apparent Volume of Distibution Represents a volume that must be considered in estimating the amount of drug in the body from the concentration of drug found in the sampling compartment blood samples are collected at periodic intervals and the plasma portion of blood is analyzed for their drug concentrations.
Conc. of drug in Plasma The apparent volume of distribution for any given drug is generally a constant for a one-compartment open model.
Calc. of vol of distribution Determined by extrapolating the value of 𝐶𝑜 in a given set of data
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Section 10

Question Answer
Two Compartment Model Drug appears to distribute instantaneously throughout a central compartment but more slowly and at a single finite rate to a peripheral compartment
Blood and body fluids and tissues in equilibriumcentral compartment
phenytoin, theophylline, digoxin, lithiumEg of Two Compartment Model
Three Compartment Model A drug is distributed most rapidly to a highly perfused central compartment, less rapidly to the second or tissue compartment, and very slowly to the third or deep tissue compartment, containing such poorly perfused tissue as bone and fat.
VancomycinEg. of Three Compartment Model
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Section 11