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Pharmaceutics III Lecture 7 Powders and Granules

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alchemist04's version from 2016-05-08 17:03

Section

Question Answer
What is powder?mixture of microscopic drug substance into fine particles w/ or w/o excipients and only has contact with air.
What is suspension?Uniform dispersion of fine particles in liquid
What is granule?clumping of FINE POWDER to form a larger particle in air.
True or false? Granules and Powders are the basis for overwhelmingly many manufacturing, administration and drug productsTrue
Particle size and shape of drug substance determine what properties of the drug?Physical and biological properties.
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Question Answer
Particle size influences (1)the surface area
Particle size influences (2)texture
Particle size influences (3)cohesion (adhesion, sticking together)
Particle size influences (4)suspendability
Particle size influences (5)Uniform of distribution (dispersion)
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Question Answer
Particle size influences (6)Dose homogeneity and reproducibility
Particle size influences (7)Penetrability - aerosol travel distance
Particle size influences (8)Pulmonary dose reproducibility
Particle size influences (9)Agglomeration
A patient wanted to know which particle size distribution would influence his drug product among these ones. Select all that applies. (1) flat cohesion (2) dose homogeneity (3) reproducibility (4) Agglomeration (5) SolubilityAll except solubility
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Question Answer
Methods of determining Particle size (1)Sieving
Methods of determining Particle size (2)Microscopy
What are ways to change and mix drug particle sizes? (1)Attrition (Pestle and mortal)
What are ways to change and mix drug particle sizes? (2)Impaction (milling) aka hitting and crushing, no mixing
What is levigation?separation of particles in a non-solvent to reduce agglomeration during grinding.
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Question Answer
Nonsolvent for Levigation (1)Alcohol (drug salt)
Nonsolvent for Levigation (2)Glycerin
Nonsolvent for Levigation (3)Mineral oil
Nonsolvent for Levigation (4)propylene glycol (PG)
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Question Answer
What are the steps involve in reducing drug particle size? (1)Blending powder
What are the steps involve in reducing drug particle size? (2)Spatulation (powder suspended in liquid or semisolid)
What are the steps involve in reducing drug particle size? (3)Trituation (most homogeneity)
What are the steps involve in reducing drug particle size? (4)Shifting and tumbling (V blender, use for large batch)
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Question Answer
What are granules?(1) small drug particles blend in large amount of excipient (2) agglomeration of small particles into large particles that do not easily come apart (3) size, typically 1-4 mm (4) can be chunks (irregular shape), spheres or rods
What are the advantages of granulation? (1)Improve flow and pour properties
What are the advantages of granulation? (2)simplify dispensing
What are the advantages of granulation? (3)decrease dissolution rate of drug (used in sustained release drug)
What are the advantages of granulation? (4)during dosage formation, it helps to reduce scattering of potent drugs
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Question Answer
What are the advantages of granulation? (5)improves adhesion btw powder agglomerates compare to small individual particles
What are the advantages of granulation? (6)simplify manufacturing of tablet
What are the advantages of granulation? (7)allow preparation of tablets with desirable properties like hard to chip but easy to disintegrate
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Question Answer
What are the problems encounter in processing of powder/excipient mixture? (1)Segregation (particle size, shape and density)
What are the problems encounter in processing of powder/excipient mixture? (2)surface adsorption (agglomeration)
What are the problems encounter in processing of powder/excipient mixture? (3)caking
What are the problems encounter in processing of powder/excipient mixture? (4)adsorption of water
How do you reduce caking of powder/excipient mixture? (1)By achieving and maintaining moisture content
How do you reduce caking of powder/excipient mixture? (2)Keep container tightly closed
How do you reduce caking of powder/excipient mixture? (3)use a desiccant packet
How do you reduce caking of powder/excipient mixture? (4)blend a second powder (corn starch or talc) that does not cake.
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Question Answer
Surface adsorption problem of drug powder/excipient mixture can lead to (1)Agglomeration
Surface adsorption problem of drug powder/excipient mixture can lead to (2)powder "melting"
Surface adsorption problem of drug powder/excipient mixture can lead to (3)increased reactivity
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Question Answer
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (1)Antacids (remember TUM's, in powder form)
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (2)Brewer's yeast (Remember Mayflower, yeast on food)
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (3)Denture (powder made into paste)
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (4)Douche
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (5)Laxative (as in bulk forming laxative fibre made into powder)
What are the examples of Bulk powders used as excipient in drug powder/excipient process? (6)Topicals
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Question Answer
3 things about Effervescent granulated salts (1)Forms bubbles, when combine with water
3 things about Effervescent granulated salts (2)Bubbles settle stomach upset
3 things about Effervescent granulated salts (3)can mask bitter, salty taste.
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