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Pharma usmle 1 mechanisms of action- neurology, respiratory

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mifazofu's version from 2016-02-02 18:59

neurology :

Question Answer
epinephrine in glucomealpha1 agonist decreases the aquas humor synthesis via vasoconstriction
brimonidinein glucome alpha2 agonist decrease aquas humor synthesis
timololbeta blocker decrease aquas humor synthesis from the ciliary epithelium
betaxololbeta blocker decrease aquas humor synthesis from the ciliary epithelium
carteololbeta blocker decrease aquas humor synthesis from the ciliary epithelium
acetazolamide in glucomedecrease aquas humor synthesis by inhibition of carbonic anhaydrase
pilocarpine direct cholinomimetics.used in emergencies. increase the outflow of aquas humor via contraction of ciliary ms and opening of the trabecular meshwork
carbacholdirect cholinomimetics. increase the outflow of aquas humor via contraction of ciliary ms and opening of the trabecular meshwork
physostigmineindirect cholinomimetics. increase the outflow of aquas humor via contraction of ciliary ms and opening of the trabecular meshwork
echothiophateindirect cholinomimetics. increase the outflow of aquas humor via contraction of ciliary ms and opening of the trabecular meshwork
latanoprostPGF2alpha. increases the outflow of aquas humor
morophine,codeine, mepridine,fentanylagonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
loperamidefor diarrhea. agonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
methadonefor maintanence programs of heroin addicts. agonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
dextromethorphanantitussive for cough. synthetic codeine agonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
diphenoxylatefor diarrhea, agonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
pentazocineagonist on opoid receptor ( μ for morphine, δ for enkephalin, κ for dynorphin) to modulate the synaptic transmission- open the K and close the Ca thus decreasing the synaptic transmission inhibiting the release of ACH aND ne 5HT, glutamate and substance P
butorphanolκ opoid receptor agonist and μ opoid receptor partial agonist produces analgesia for sever pain and migraine and labour
tramadolvery week opoid agonist also inhibits 5HT and NE reuptake working on multiple neurotransmitters
ethosuxamideblocks the thalamic T type Ca channels. in absence seizures
phynitoininactivate Na channels . has zero order kinetics in in status eplipticus, tonic clonic partial simple and complex
carbamzepineinactivate Na channels for partial simole and complex and tonic clonic seizures. 1st line in trigeminal neuralgia
valporic acid inactivate Na channels, inhibit GABA transaminase so increases the GABA concentration for partial simple and complex and tonic clonic seizures alslo absence
Gabapentininhibit high voltage activated Ca channels, designed as a GABA analog, for partial simple and complex, also for peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia
topiramateblock Na channels and increase GABA. for partial simple and comlex and tonic clonic also in migraine prevention
lamotrigineblock voltage gated Na channels. for partial simple and complex, tonic clonic and absence seizures
levitiracetamunknown maybe modulate the GABA and glutamate release for partial simple and complex, tonic clonic
Tigabinincrease GABA by inhibiting th GABA reuptake. for partial simple and complex
Vigabatrinincreases the GABA by irrevirsable inhibition of GABA transaminase, partial simple and complex.
phenobarbitalenhance GABA(A) action by increasing the duration of CL channel opening and thus decreasing the neuronal firing. CI in porphyria
pentobarbitalenhance GABA(A) action by increasing the duration of CL channel opening and thus decreasing the neuronal firing. CI in porphyria
thiopentalused for induction of anasthesia in short surgical procedures. enhance GABA(A) action by increasing the duration of CL channel opening and thus decreasing the neuronal firing. CI in porphyria
secobarbitalenhance GABA(A) action by increasing the duration of CL channel opening and thus decreasing the neuronal firing. CI in porphyria
diazepanenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. long acting
lorazepanenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. long acting
triazolamenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. short acting
temazepamenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. long acting
oxazepamenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. shortacting
midazolamcommonly used as an IV anasthetic for endoscopy. enhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. short acting
chlordiazipoxideenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. long acting
alprazolamenhance GABA (A) action by increasing the frequency of the Cl channel opening. decreases REM sleep. short acting
Zolpidemact via BZI subtype of the GABA receptor effects reversed by Flumazenil
Zaleplonact via BZI subtype of the GABA receptor effects reversed by Flumazenil
eszopicloneact via BZI subtype of the GABA receptor effects reversed by Flumazenil
halothaneinhaled anasthetic. mechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
enfluranemechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
isofluranemechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
sevofluranemechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
methoxyfluranemechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
N2Omechanism unknown. causes myocardial and respiratory depression and emsis and increase the cerebral blood flow
ketamine ( arylcyclohexylamines)PCP analog act as dissociative anasthetic block NMDA receptors. cardiovascular stimulant
propofolused for sedation in the ICU rapid anasthesia induction for short procedures. less postoperative nausea than thiopental. potentiates the GABA(A).
procaineester local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons
cocaineester local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons
tetracaineester local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons
lidocaineamide local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons. 3ry amine anasthetics penetrate the membrane uncharges then bind the ion channels in the charged form
mepivacaineamide local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons. 3ry amine anasthetics penetrate the membrane uncharges then bind the ion channels in the charged form
bupivacaineamide local anasthetic, block Na channel by binding to specific receptor on the inner portion of the channel. prefers to bind the the active Na channels and most effective in the rapidly firing neurons. 3ry amine anasthetics penetrate the membrane uncharges then bind the ion channels in the charged form
succinylcholinedepolarizing NMblocker. strong ACH receptor agnost. produces sustained depolarization and prevent the ms contraction. reversing effects is only possible in phase 2 by acetylcholinestrase inhibitors
tubocurarinenondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
atracurariumnondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
mivacurariumnondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
pancruniumnondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
vecruniumnondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
rocruniumnondepolarizing NM blockers competitive antagonists on the ACH receoptors reverse the block by neostigmine and physostigmine and edrophonium
Dantroleneprevents the release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal ms.
BaclofenInhibit GABA(B) receptors at the spinal cord level inducing skeletal ms relaxation
Cyclobenzaprinecentrally acting ms relaxant structurally related to TCA and has similar anticholenergic SE
Bromocriptineergot dopamine agonist for ttt of parkinsons
pramipexolenon ergot (preferred) dopamine agonist for ttt of parkinsons
ropinirolenon ergot (preferred) dopamine agonist for ttt of parkinsons
amantidineincreases dopamine release and decrease its uptake also used as antiviral against Influenza Aand rubella
levodopa( L dopa)unlike dopamine ldopa can cross the BBB and is converted by dopa carboxylase in the CNS to dopamine.
carbidopaperipheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor and is given with Ldopa to increase its bioavailability in the brain and limit its peripheral side effects
tolcaponeblock the conversion of dopamine to DOPAC by inhibiting the central COMT
benzatropineantimuscarinic in parkinsons improves the tremors and rigidity but woth little effects on the bradykinesia.
memantinettt of alzaheimer, NMDA receptor antagonist prevent the excitotoxicity ( mediated by Ca)
donepezilAChE inhibitors in ttt of alzaheimers
galantamineAChE inhibitors in ttt of alzaheimers
rivastigmineAChE inhibitors in ttt of alzaheimers
tacrineAChE inhibitors in ttt of alzaheimers
tetrabenzinettt of huntigton, inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) limit DA vesicle packaging and release
resprinettt of huntigton, inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) limit DA vesicle packaging and release
sumatriptantriptans are 5HT(1B/1D) agonist inhibit the trigiminal nerve activation and prevent the vasoactive peptide release, induce vasoconstriction for migrane and cluster headache attacks
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respiratory :

Question Answer
diphenhydraminereversible inhibitors of H1 receptors. 1st generation
dimenhydrinatereversible inhibitors of H1 receptors. 1st generation
chlorphenarminereversible inhibitors of H1 receptors. first generation
loratidine2nd generation H1 reversible blocker
fexofenadine2nd generation H1 reversible blocker
desloratidine2nd generation H1 reversible blocker
cetrizine2nd generation H1 reversible blocker
Guafensinexpectorant thins the respiratory secretions
N acetylcysteinemucolytic, loosen mucus plug in cystic fibrosis by disrupting the disulfide bonds also an antidote of acetaminophin overdose
pseudoephedrinem phenylephrinealpha adrenergic agonist as nasal decongestants
Bosentancompetitive antagonism for for endothelin-1 receptor and decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance for pulmonary htn
sildenafilcGMP PDE-5 inhibitor porolong the vasodilatory effects of NO for ttt of eractile dysfunction and pulmonary htn
eporostenoldirect vasodilators on the pulmonary and systemic arterial and vascular bed and inhibit the platelet aggregation
iloprostdirect vasodilators on the pulmonary and systemic arterial and vascular bed and inhibit the platelet aggregation
prostacyclin (PGI2)direct vasodilators on the pulmonary and systemic arterial and vascular bed and inhibit the platelet aggregation
albuterolβ2 agonist, relaxes the bronchial smooth muscles during acute exacerbations
Salmetrollong acting β2 agonist for prophylaxis
formeterollong acting β2 agonist for prophylaxis
fluticasonecorticosteroid inhibit synthesis of all cytokines, inactivate NF-κB the transcription factor for TNF-α used for ttt for chronic asthma
budesonidecorticosteroid inhibit synthesis of all cytokines, inactivate NF-κB the transcription factor for TNF-α used for ttt for chronic asthma
Ipratropiumcompetitive block on muscarinic receptors prevent bronchoconstrictionfor asthma and copd
tiotropium( long acting) competitive block on muscarinic receptors prevent bronchoconstrictionfor asthma and copd
montelukast, zafirlukastblock leukotreine receptor CysLT1 gd for asprin induced asthma
ziluten5-lipooxygenase path. inhibitor block the conversion of arachidonic acid to LT
omalizumabmonoclonal anti-IgE ab bind mostly to unbound igE and blocks binding to FcεRI. in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long abting beta2 agonits
methylxanthines, theophyllinebronchodilators by inhibition of PDE and thus increasing the cAMP by decreasing its hydrolysis. limited use cause of the narrow theraputic index. block the action of adenosine
methacholineM3 agonist in bronchial challenge test to Dx asthma
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