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Pharm6

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robbypowell's version from 2016-09-18 19:58

Section

Question Answer
define: agent that destroys microorganisms on living objectsAntiseptic
define: agent that destroys microorganism on inanimate objectsDisinfectant
list two halogen antiseptics/disinfectantsIodine & Chlorine
which halogen disinfectant is corrosive (disadvantage)Chlorine
how is Chlorine usually seen as an antiseptic/disinfectant (conc. and formula)5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite
which halogen disinfectant/antiseptic is non-toxic and non-corrosive?Iodine
Iodine disinfectants that are bound to polymers and less likely to discolor are ______ and are good surface disinfectantsIodophors
Fungi have ______ as the main component of their cell membranes, so must anti-fungals inhibit this, but may also inadvertently affect cholesterolErgosterol
HIV treatment is especially important when CD4 levels are below...500 (idk units)
what are the 4 classes of HIV drugs?NRTI's, NNRTI's, Protease Inhibitors & Integrase Inhibitors
why are combined treatment with NRTI's and NNRTI's preferable for HIV?minimizes chances of resistance in HIV to 1 class
name two combined treatment (NRTI & NNRTI) drugs for HIVAtripla & Complera
memorize

which virus is this?

Question Answer
causes cold sores, fever blistersHerpes Simplex Virus
primary infection that causes chickenpox (very contagious)Varicella Zoster
reactivation of the chicken pox virus is called what? (shingles)Herpes Zoster
a usually silent viral infection (no signs, symptoms) but can cause disease in immunosuppressed and babies that are infected before birth (congenital)Cytomegalovirus
cause growths like genital worts and abnormal cell changesPapillomavirus (HPV)
memorize

which antiviral treatment?

Question Answer
used to treat Influenza by inhibiting Influenza A replication (not common)Amantadine
used to treat Influenza, neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza A and swine flu... effective if taken within 1-2 days of infectionOseltamivir (Tamilflu)
effective against HSV, VZ, CMV: inhibits DNA polymerase and viral synthesis; mimics body’s nucleosides (nucleoside analogue)Acyclovir (Zovirax)
used to treat normal immune patients diagnosed with primary herpetic gingivostomatitisAcyclovir (Zovirax)
Interactions of this treatment increase the nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen, NSAIDS, acetylsalicylates (asprin), and other antibiotics that cause nephrotoxicityAcyclovir (Zovirax)
this treatment is a prodrug of Acyclovir and rapidly absorbed orally and converted to acyclovir in intestines and liver; (identical action/side effects to acyclovir )Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
if virus appropriate to treat with Acyclovir is resistant... what other drug should you use?Valacyclovir (Valtrex) (apparently Acyclovir resistance is not conferred to Valtrex)
side effects of this antiviral include renal toxicity and renal disturbances (temporary or permanent) Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia → causes paresthesias, tetany, musc spasm, seizuresFoscarnet
faulty versions of the building blocks that HIV needs to copy itselfNRTI's (Zidovudine/Retrovir/AZT)
first drug to treat HIVZidovudine (Retrovir/AZT)
disable protein needed by HIV to copy itself as they attach to reverse transcriptase, prevents RNA → DNA conversionNNRTI's (Efavirenz (sustiva), nevirapine (viramune), rilpivirine (edurant))
disable protease (used by HIV to copy itself)Protease Inhibitors (atazanavir/reataz, darunavir/prezista, ritonavir/norvir, nelfinavir/viracept)
act by inhibiting integrase (used by HIV to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells)Integrase Inhibitors (Raltegravir/isentress and indinavir)
memorize

which anti fungal is this?

Question Answer
anti fungal that is not commonly used because of its toxicityAmphoterecin B
High polar, toxic, unstable, and easily photo-oxidized (photosensitive) compound that can be used topically or systemicallyAmphoterecin B
disadvantages of this anti fungal are: extremely toxic when given in IV, allergy, nephrotoxicity, GIT disturbance, delirium, hypotensionAmphoterecin B
first oral (taken orally) antifungal approve for systemic mycoses (once fungal infection has reached bloodstream)Ketoconazole (an Azole)
fungistatic agent taken for skin, nails and hair with side effects of GIT disturbances, mental confusion (don’t make them take it for very long), inducer of cytochrome p450Grisofulvin
fungistatic agent that disrupts mitotic spindle and fungal mitosis, T1/2 is very long (20h)Grisofulvin
class of anti fungals that is well-absorbed in acidic environmentsAzoles (esp Ketoconazole)
specific anti fungal that causes gynecomastia (large breasts) in men and menstrual irregularity in women (because it affects sex hormone synthesis)Ketoconazole (nizoral)
this azole anti fungal is like Ketoconazole, except it has less interference with sex hormones and less effect on mammalian cholesterolsItraconazole
azole anti fungal that has similar spectrum, but is not well absorbed (so used topically as skin/vaginal cream)Clotimazole (Mycelia)
combo of this anti fungal and steroid is sold as Lotrisone cream and used to treat fungal infections topically, such as jock itch, ring worm, and athlete’s foot Clotrimazole (antifungal) & Betamethosone (steroid)
memorize

which common antiseptic/disinfectant

Question Answer
halogen that is corrosive, inhibited by organic debris, not stable when dilutedChlorine
halogen that is non-toxic, non-corrosive, broad spectrum, not inhibited by organic debris, and tends to discolor surfacesIodine
cross-links proteins, not affected by organic debris, broad spectrum, creates an allergenic response upon repeated exposureGlutaraldehyde
creates an allergenic response upon repeated exposureGlutaraldehyde
should NOT be used as a surface disinfectant, and must be alkalinized to be activatedGlutaraldehyde
mainly used for equipment (will sterilize if used for at least 10 hrs)Glutaraldehyde
broad spectrum with substituted groups, increases antimicrobial activity, active in presence of organic material*Phenols
specific phenolic compound used in dentifrices due to antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory attributesTriclosan
specific phenolic compound isolated from clove oilEugenol
specific phenolic compound used in soaps and scrubsPara-Chloro-Metexyl-enol
used in oral rinses, skin cleansers and as a preservative (in small quantities)
chemical antiseptic is bactericidal towards Gram Positive (and less-so Gram Negative) bacteria because it disrupts cell membranesChlorhexidine (Peridex)
rinse used to treat ginigivitisChlorhexidine (Peridex)
has side effects of: white patches/sores (mouth or lips), swelling of salivary glands (under jaws), mouth irritation and dry mouth, unusual/unpleasant taste in mouth (or dec taste sensation)Chlorhexidine (also builds up staining on teeth)
memorize

which class of HIV drugs does this drug belong to (or combination of two classes)

Question Answer
Atripla (efavirenz)Combined NRTI & NNRTI
Complera (rilpivirine)Combined NRTI & NNRTI
atazanavir (reataz)Protease Inhibitor
darunavir (prezista)Protease Inhibitor
ritonavir (norvir)Protease Inhibitor
nelfinavir (viracept)Protease Inhibitor
Raltegravir (isentress)Integrase Inhibitor
IndinavirIntegrase inhibitor
Zidovudine (Retrovir/AZT)NRTI
Emtricitabine and tenofovir (truvada)NRTI with nucleoside mimicker
lamivudine + zidovudine (combivir)NRTI with nucleoside mimicker
Efavirenz (sustiva)NNRTI
Nevirapine (viramune)NNRTI
Rilpivirine (edurant)NNRTI
memorize