robbypowell's version from 2016-09-20 03:05


Question Answer
_______ people die annually from hospital sourced infections90,000 people
T/F: it is common for oral infections to progress to systemic infectionsFalse ("rare")
T/F: it is rare for oral infections to progress to systemic infectionsTrue
term that means that a drug should be more toxic to target microorganism than to the hostSelective Toxicity
who isolated penicillin from Penicillium notatum and discovered efficacy against S. Aureus?Alexander Fleming
An antibiotic that is effective against both gram + and gram - bacteria is referred to as _____ _____Broad-Spectrum
something that is _____ inhibits bacterial growthBacteriostatic
something that is _____ kills bacteriaBactericidal
T/F: Antibiotics are the most widely used class of drugsTrue
Dentists prescribe _________-_________% of common antibiotics7-11%
drugs that affect cell wall synthesis/cell membrane integrity/DNA synthesis are bacteri-_____bactericidal (kill bacteria)
drugs that affect folic acid/protein synthesis are bacterio-_______bacterioSTATIC (inhibit growth)
penicillins and cephalosporins, bacitracin, vancomycin, cycloserine, glycopeptides are all antibiotics that target what part of bacteria?Cell wall
T/F: GM- have less cross-linking in peptidoglycan structure than GM+True
T/F: GM+ have less cross-linking in peptidoglycan structure than GM-False
Drugs that target cross-linking don’t affect Gram _____ bacteria as muchNegative
Enzyme that is used to transfer peptides (an imp step in cross-linking of bacterial cell wall)Transpepsidase
Penicillins inhibit what 2 enzymes?Transpepsidase & Carboxypepsidase
lincomycin, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides all affect bacteria how?Inhibition of Protein synthesis (binds to 50s or 30s subunit of ribosome)
fluoroquinolones inhibit what two enzymes?topoisomerase & gyrase
______ inhibit the enzymes topoisomerase & gyrosFluoroquinolones
______ inhibits the enzyme transpepsidasePenicillin (B-Lactam, really)
______ inhibits DNA enzymesMetronidazole
Metronidazole inhibits _____DNA
______ inhibits folic acid synthesis (which is important for purine synthesis)Sulfonamides
______ is when the combined effect of 2 drugs is greater than the additive effect if the two drugs were given individuallySynergism
T/F: bacteria are usually resistant to an entire family of drugs, not just individual onesTrue
T/F: bacteria are usually resistant to individual drugs, not entire familiesFalse
Type of resistance to a drug due to little or no site of actionNatural Resistance
Type of resistance to a drug due to gene transfer mechanisms (Transsduction, transposition, transformation, conjugation)Acquired Resistance
Type of resistance to a drug when resistance to one agent also makes it resistant to another agentCross-resistance
acquired Beta Lactam resistance is especially seen in gram ______ bacteriaNegative
3 drugs with Beta-Lactamase inhibitors (to overcome B-Lactam resistance)Augmentin, Unasyn, and Zosyvn
Multi-drug antibiotic efflux pumps (move antibiotic out of cell) are seen in what 4 given examples of bacteria?E. coli, Staph, Strep pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa
DNA segments that don’t self-replicate, but move from 1 place to another in cell’s genome or btw bacterial cell and plasmid/virusTransposons
naked DNA molecule that is separate from and replicates independently of chromosomal DNAPlasmid
T/F: Plasmids are usually Double stranded and circularTrue
T/F: Plasmids are usually single stranded and linearFalse (ds & circular)
____-genes are necessary for plasmids to allow conjugationTRA-genes
define: mobile DNA element that captures and disseminates genes via site-specific integration of DNA (gene cassettes) and can mediate resistance, virulence, and biochemical functionIntegrons
What are the 4 major resistant pathogens?→ S. pneumoniae, MRSA, vancomycin resistant enterococci, pseudomonas aeruginosa

specific drug side effects (which drugs?)

Question Answer
Leukopenia/thrombocytopeniaB-lactams, sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide)
Aplastic anemia***Chloramphenicol***
Platelet dysfunction/bleeding(some) penicillins (not all)
Clinical bleedingSome B-lactams, usually cephalosporins
Hypersensitivity, Drug FeverB-lactams, sulfonamides
Hypersensitivity, Drug RashB-lactams, sulfonamides
Hypersensitivity, AnaphylaxisB-lactams
Hypersensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome***sulfonamides***
Hypersensitivity, PhototoxicityTetracycline (e.g. Doxycycline)

mechanisms of genetic variation

Question Answer
uptake of innate naked DNA from environmentTransformation
movement of DNA from 1 bac to another via bacteriophageTransduction
self-transfer of genetic info via plasmids/transposons , ‘bacterial sex’conjugation

mechanisms associated with resistance (matching) (not an easy table to make sense of)

Question Answer
Beta LactamaseEnzymatic cleavage of an antibiotic molecule
macrolidesMutation of site of action
quinolonesLimit access to antibiotics by changing cell membrane integrity
sulphonamidesUse of alternate growth requirements and overproduction of target sites

should you give antibiotics... yes or no?

Question Answer
clinical signs of infec are presentyes
as a supplement to other therapies (prophylaxis)yes (this is pretty broad and unclear)
dental painno
prevention of post-operative sequelaeno
known risk of infective endocarditisyes