robbypowell's version from 2016-12-12 23:57

Neoplastic drugs

Question Answer
One of the methods of resistance of neoplastic cells comes from ______ in cell membranes that flux out drugs using ____Glycoproteins; ATP (active transport)
______ ______ Carcinoma in Head and Neck Cancer is treated with Monoclonal AntibodiesSquamos Cell Carcinoma
______ kinase is often targeted in treatment of neoplasia because it affects signal transduction (of growth factors and is used to slow down rapidly dividing cells)Tyrosine Kinase (tyrphostins is the class of drug, short name for Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors)
List 2 Alkylating Antineoplastic drugsCyclophosphamide & Busulfan (→ treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)
What cancers are Cyclophosphamide & Busulfan used to treat?Alkylating agents → treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma and CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)
List 2 drugs that alter metabolic machinery or trick cell into not making important metabolites (aka Anti-metabolites) that are used to treat Head & Neck CancersMethotrexate & 5 flurouracil (Anti-metabolites)
Vinblastine & Vincristine are Plant ______ used to treat what neoplastic condition?Plant Alkaloid; Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Paclitaxel & Docetaxel are _________ (class) (drugs that end in -axel) and are used to treat neoplasia in what 2 areas (that he listed anyway)Taxanes; H&N & Breast cancer
Dactinomycin, doxorubicin, Bleomycin are what type of drugs used for what type of cancer (that he told us about)ActinoMYCINES (aka Polypeptide Antitumor Antibiotics); Treat Squamos Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
Tamoxifen is an __________ drug used to treat what cancer condition?Anti-estrogen; Breast Cancer
Flutamide is an ___________ drug used to treat what cancer condition?Anti-ANDROGEN → for prostate cancer
List 4 drugs (2 classes & 2 drugs) that are non-cell cycle specific antineoplastic agents (target replicating and non-replicating cells)Alkylating agents, Antibiotics (Polypeptide Antitumor Antibiotics), Cisplatin & Nitrosuria
2 drugs that target G1 phase of cell cycleAsparaginase & Steroids
1 drug that targets G2 phase of cell cycleBleomycin (antibiotic that targets g2 phase of cell cycle)***
Antimetabolites (Methotrexate & 5 Flurouracil) affect what phase of cell cycle?S phase
Vinca Alkaloids (Plant Alkaloids) affect what phase of cell cycle?M phase*** (so do taxanes)
Taxanes (Paclitaxel & Docetaxel) affect what phase of cell cycle?M phase*** (so do vinca alkaloids)
Cell cycle ______ (specific/non-specific) are good for affecting rapidly dividing cells onlyspecific
Cell cycle ______ (specific/non-specific) target resting and proliferating cellsnon-specific
What class of anti tumor drugs form alkyl radicals that target nucleophilic moieties → form covalent linkages with them (phosphate, hydroxyl, carboxyl) or DNA, RNA, and proteinsAlkylating Agents (Cyclophosphamide, Busulfan )
_____suppression ---> ______suppression are the adverse effects associated with Alkylating AgentsMyelosuppression (marrow) --> Immunosuppression (Alkylating Agents: Cyclophosphamide & Busulfan)
Methotrexate inhibits conversion of ____ --> ____ by inhibiting _______ reductase enzyme; thereby inhibiting the formation of Folic AcidDHF--> THF; dihydrofolate reductase
4 Oral Manifestations of adverse effects of Methotrexate (antimetabolite)ulcerative stomatitis, glossitis, mucositis, gingivitis
Doxorubicin & Danorubicin are anti tumor antibiotics that form _____ (reversible/irrev) complexes with ____ and inhibit cell divisionIrreversible; DNA (these 2 are non-phase-specific; bleomycin has a different mechanism and is G2 specific)
Vinca Alkaloids (Vincristine & Vinblastine) Arrest cell division in ____ phase by binding to microtubular protein (tubulin) that forms mitotic spindlesMetaphase
Taxanes (end in -taxel; e.g. Docetaxel) bind to beta-tubulin and inhibit the depolymerization of Tubulin, arresting cells in ____ phase, stopping dividing cellsMetaphase
2 classes of drugs that are similar in that they affect M phaseVinca Alkaloids & Taxanes***
This drug is an estrogen receptor antagonist used to treat adenocarcinoma of breast, endometrial carcinoma, multiple myeloma (all of these respond to estrogen)Tamoxifen***
This drug is given for Breast cancer in post-menopausal women that progressed during tamoxifen tx, because it inhibits formation of estrogen by inhibiting aromataseAnastrozole
this testosterone receptor agonist is given in tx of prostate cancerFlutamide***
this anti tumor drug acts as monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptorHerceptin***
Estrogens and anti-estrogens may cause _____-emia in breast cancer patients (~30%) → confusion, coma, kidney damageHypercalcemia
List 5 Oral implications (symptoms) from chemotherapeutic agents (in general)stomatitis, hemorrhage, acute/chronic infec, rapid progression of caries/periodontal disease, pain/discomfort
For management of oral bleeding... patients must be given transfusion if they have less than _____ platelets<20k platelets

class and what it treats? (not sure how important it is to associate with cancers treated, but he gave us some for these, so why not add it in the tables)

Question Answer
CyclophosphamideAlkylating Antineoplastic drug; Treats Hodgkin’s Lymphoma & CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) (similar to Busulifan in these ways)
BusulfanAlkylating Antineoplastic drug; Treats Hodgkin’s Lymphoma & CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) (similar to Cylophosphamide in these ways)
MethotrexateAnti-metabolite drug (alter metabolic machinery or trick cell into not making important metabolites); treats H&N cancers
5 flurouracilAnti-metabolite drug (alter metabolic machinery or trick cell into not making important metabolites); treats H&N cancers
VinblastinePlant Alkaloid; treats Hodgkins Lymphoma
VincristinePlant Alkaloid; treats Hodgkins Lymphoma
PaclitaxelTaxanes (end in -taxel); treat H&N & Breast cancer
DocetaxelTaxanes (end in -taxel); treat H&N & Breast cancer
DactinomycinActinoMYCINES (aka Polypeptide Antitumor Antibiotics); Treat Squamos Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
BleomycinActinoMYCINES (aka Polypeptide Antitumor Antibiotics); Treat Squamos Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
TamoxifenAnti-estrogen drug; Breast cancer
FlutamideAnti-androgen; prostate cancer

matching Anti-tumor Agent

Question Answer
Immune modulatorInterferon
Plant AlkaloidVinblastine
Alkylating DrugCyclophosphamide
Polypeptide Antitumor AntibioticDoxorubicin
Anti-estrogen drugTamoxifen
Anti-androgen drugFlutamide
Antibody targeting programmed death-1 receptorNivolumab

Match drug with toxicity it is associated with (many of these are wrong... but they're straight from slides. so don't get google crazy or you'll lose yourself down a rabbit hole)--(also the starred ones ARE correct and likely the ones that will show up on test, if any do at all)

Question Answer
Doxarubicin (non cell-phase specific polypeptide antitumor antibiotic from soil Streptomyces species)Heart ***(cardiomyopathy --> CHF)
Cyclophosphamide (Alkylating agent)Liver (pro-drug converted by Cytochrome P450; so greater concentration in liver cells)
Bleomycin (G2 phase specific polypeptide anti tumor antibiotic from soil Streptomyces species)Lung (Pulmonary Fibrosis)***
Vincristine (Plant Alkaloid) (M Phase)Nervous system (Peripheral Neuropathy, headaches, altered sensation)
Methotrexate (Antimetabolite)Kidney (renal failure)

therapeutic interventions for oral manifestations of cancer tx

Question Answer
_____-therapy: dec temp/freezing; promotes wound healing, destroys free nerve endingsCryotherapy
______ is recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-1 → allows for fast wound healingPalifermin
_______ is an anti-inflammatory agent that can be applied topically; L-glutamine --> dec pro-inflamm cytokinesBenzydamine
______ is an antioxidant ROS scavenger, destroys these free radicals --> less injuryAmifostine