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Pharm30

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robbypowell's version from 2016-11-08 03:59

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Question Answer
T/F: Most Autocoids serve as nuerotransmitters, but there are some that do notFalse (most DO NOT, but some exceptions, Serotonin NO & Histamine, Do act as neurotransmitters on CNS only)
T/F: Most Autacoids don’t serve as neurotransmitters, but there are some that doTrue (e.g. Serotonin NO & Histamine, Do act as neurotransmitters on CNS only)
Most Autacoids are mediated by receptor effects... what is an example of one that does need a receptor to act, though... (one exception given)Nitric Oxide (NO is made by endothelial cells and binds to guanylate cyclase and activtes it → changes GTP to cGMP; cGMP is biomolecule that causes vasorelaxation)
define: class of locally acting endogenous substances; produced throughout the body but act locally to modulate tissue activitiesAutacoids
NO is made by ____ cells and binds to _____ _____ and activates it... this changes ____ to ____ ... which causes vasorelaxationEndothelial cells; Guanylate Cyclase (enzyme); GTP → cGMP (vasorelaxant)
t/f: prostaglandins are autacoids that are given to induce labor and treat peptic ulcersTrue
t/f: serotonin is an autocoid that is given to induce labor and treat peptic ulcersFalse (Prostaglandins, not serotonin)
t/f: serotonin is an autocoid given to alleviate migrainesTrue
t/f: prostaglandins are autocoids that are given to alleviate migrainesFalse (Serotonin, not prostaglandins)
mast cells in what 3 parts of body account for the greater amount of histamine available in these tissues?in the lungs, nasal mucosa, and stomach
histamine is made via ______ of what amino acid?Decarboxylation of Histidine
t/f: initial exposure to allergen causes histamine releaseFalse (only during repeat exposure... cell-mediated)
t/f: initial exposure to allergen does not cause histamine releaseTrue (only during repeat exposure... cell-mediated)
Histamine has what effect on blood vessels (vascular smooth muscle), what effect on non-vascular smooth muscle (bronchi)vasoDILATION; bronchoCONSTRICTION (histamine is a serious jerk... getting that edema, and you can't even breathe)
How does histamine affect the stomach?Increase of Gastric Acid Secretion (maybe some kind of anti-parasite adaptation??? shot in the dark guess)
T/F: All histamine receptors are g-coupledTrue
3 effects of histamine that can put patients at greater risk of shock (at very high doses)decrease peripheral resistance and BP, increase vasc permeability (and thus edema)
______ are Competitive antagonists of H1 or H2 receptorsAntihistamines
T/F: competitive antagonists shift dose-response curve to the RIGHTtrue
T/F: competitive antagonists shift dose-response curve to the LEFTFalse (to the right)
T/F: Maximum response is still maintained with competitive antagonismTrue
T/F: Maximum response is still maintained with non-competitive antagonismFalse (competitive)
H1 Receptor antagonists (antihistamines) all hive a similar structure, but have substitituions at ____Z
T/F: First generation antihistamines pass BBB and can interact with general anestheticsTrue
T/F: First generation antihistamines do not cross the BBB and so are safe to use with general anestheticsFalse (do cross, do interact with gen anesth)
T/F: first generation antihistamines inhibit nausea and vomiting associated with motion sicknesstrue
T/F: H1-antagonist antihistamines can cause hyposalivation/xerostomiaTrue (due to Antimuscarinic activity of H1-AH)
T/F: H1-antagonist antihistamines do not cause hyposalivation/xerostomiaFalse (H1-antagonist antihistamines can cause hyposalivation/xerostomia due to ANTIMUSCARINIC activity of H1-AH)
list 2 first gen antihistamines that can have a mild local anesthetic effectdiphenhydramine, promethazine **
T/F: large doses of 1st gen antihistamines can lead to CNS stimulation and even convulsionsTrue (do cross BBB) (2nd gen doesn't cross BBB)
T/F: large doses of 2nd gen antihistamines can lead to CNS stimulation and even convulsionsFalse (2nd doesn't cross BBB, first does)
Life saving tx to give during anaphylaxisEpinephrine
T/F: H1 antagonists wont be as effective in blocking, need other forms of therapy such as Epinephrine for anaphylaxisTrue***
T/F: H1 antihistamines (antagonists) are administered for anaphylaxisFalse (need other forms of therapy such as Epinephrine for anaphylaxis)
T/F: Epinephrine is useful for treatment of anaphylaxis because it also acts on histamine receptorsFalse (doesn't act on H1 or H2, instead antagonist of the EFFECTS, not of the receptor)
T/F: Epinephrine is useful for treatment of anaphylaxis... but doesn't act on Histamine receptorsTrue (instead antagonist of the EFFECTS, not of the receptor)
Antihistamines are mainly metabolized in the ______liver (some may induce microsomal hepatic enzymes)
T/F: some 1st gen antihistamines can be used for tremors/musc rigidity in Parkinsonism headache and dystonias (from antipsychotic agents such as phenothiazine, chlorpromazine)True
list 2 anti-psychotic antihistamines (1st gen, do cross BBB)Phenothiazine, Chlorpromazine
T/F: 1st gen Antihistamines are relevant to dentistry bc they can be used as an adjunct with general anesthetics to increase sedationTrue
1st gen antihistamines have what effect on salivation?Decrease it (due to anti-muscarinic effects)
Are 2nd gen antihistamines relevant for use in dentistry?No (1st gen are tho)
T/F: Blood dyscariasis (destruction of BV in bone marrow) can be an adverse effect of AntihistaminesTrue (probably some pretty specific ones though)
3 examples of H2-receptor antagonistCimetidine (tagamet), ranitidine, & famotidine
All H2-receptor antagonists are metabolized in the _____; all but ______ are rapidly absorbed via oral administrationLiver; Famotidine
H2 receptors are densely present in what stomach cells?Parietal cells (gastric acid producers, obvi)
Why are there so many drug interactions with Cimetidine?• Related to inhibition of P450 and dec hepatic blood flow → inc blood concentrations of other drugs metabolized by liver (aka dec metabolism of other drugs, so you must dec doses of the other drugs) **TEST**
______ releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone; this is received by _____ which releases ACTH (Adrenal Cortico-Tropic Hormone); which is received by _____ _____ which releases CortisolHypothalamus; Ant. Pituitary; Adrenal Cortex (zona glomerosa) (Go Find Rex Make Good Sex ... the oldie but goodie of mnemonics, about adrenal cortex)
Glucocorticoids have what effect on Calcium levels?decrease Ca absorption
3 examples of synthetic glucocorticoidsPrednisone, Dexamethasone, Triamcinolone
memorize

which histamine receptor? (H1-H4)

Question Answer
vasodilation of BV (vast sm muscle), contraction of non-vasc smooth muscH1** (most relevant)
EdemaH1** (as a result of vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries) (most relevant receptor)
inc gastric acid secretion... and in high doses vasodilation and cardiac stimulationH2
this H-receptor is mainly in the CNSH3 (only thing you need to know about it, so far as i can tell)
plays a role in bone-marrow/hematopoietic stem cell development (not well understood... and so probably not all that testable)H4
this H-receptor is on endothelial cellsH1
memorize

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