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Pharm2

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robbypowell's version from 2016-08-28 21:27

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Question Answer
Adverse reactions are undesirable effects of a drug that result from a lack of _____specificity
T/F: No drug is free of adverse effectsTrue
T/F: Few drugs have true adverse effectsFalse (all have adverse effects)
_____% of patients hospitalized annually are admitted due to an adverse reaction5-10%
_____% of hospitalized patients experience adverse reactions due to drugs used for tx10-20%
what type of adverse rxn?: predictable, dose-related, acts on non-target organsSide-effect
what type of adverse rxn?: predictable, dose-related, acts on target organs, extensions of pharmacologic effects (aka overdose)Toxic rxn
what type of adverse rxn?: not predictable or dose-relatedAllergic rxn
what type of adverse rxn?: is the rarest, genetic adverse rxn; unpredictableIdiosyncrasy
which phase of clinicial testing (1, 2, or 3)?: volunteers or special populations, test for safety/metabolism/effects/drug interactions; tested by clinical pharmacologistsPhase 1
which phase of clinicial testing (1, 2, or 3)?: selected pts (target pts), tests therapeutic efficacy/dose range/metabolism via clinical pharmacologists and clinical investigatorsPhase 2
which phase of clinicial testing (1, 2, or 3)?: multicentered study (large sample), tests safety/efficacy via clinical investigatorsPhase 3
LD50/ED50 tells you what value?Therapeutic Index (TI)
Is a larger or smaller TI safer?Larger
A narrow margin of safety for a drug... you would expect high or low TI?Low TI
drug that is commercially undeveloped due to limited potential for profitability is called _____ drugOrphan Drug
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toxicity

Question Answer
(acute/chronic) toxicity occurs after few exposures (e.g alcohol intoxication)Acute toxicity
(acute/chronic) toxicity occurs after longer, multiple exposures (usually subtoxic doses with cumulative effect) (e.g.→ liver cirrhosis due to prolonged alcohol use)Chronic toxicity
Many procarcinogenic pollutants are converted to highly reactive _______ in body (dioxin, smoke, burning plastics)electophiles
T/F: Tylenol gets broken down and its metabolites have free radicals that destroy liver and kidneysTrue
T/F: Penicillin gets broken down and its metabolites have free radicals that destroy liver and kidneysFalse (Tylenol was e. g.)
T/F: Toxic metabolites can reach the placenta and can be excreted in milkTrue
T/F: Toxic metabolites cannot cross the placentaFalse
Renal Toxicity would be assessed easily with what type of test?Urine test
______ is given for morphine toxicityNaloxone
______ is given for benzodiazepine toxicityflumazenil
Treatment for Heavy metal toxicities... usually given a ______chelator
Toxic mercury can cause acute effects on ______ and chronic effects on ____ and _____CNS (acute); Heart and Kidney (chronic)
inc salivation, speech problems, gingivitis, visual problems are all oral manifestations of ______ toxicityMercury
list 3 chelator drugs used for mercurydimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine
list 4 chelator drugs used for leadCaNa2EDTA, dimercaprol, penicillamine, succimer
What chelator drug is used for lead but not mercuryCaNa2EDTA
what is the most common cause of heavy metal toxicity?Lead
T/F: Lead can cross the placentaTrue
T/F: Lead cannot cross the placentaFalse
Anticonvulsant drugs are sometimes used to help with toxicity of what heavy metal?Lead
this toxic gas has high affinity for hemoglobin (200x O2 → competitive binding) and forms carboxyhemoglobin and impedes oxygen transportCarbon Monoxide
this toxic gas is a low potency general anesthetic (sedative, analgesic), also found in atmosphereNitrous Oxide
prolonged or repeated intermittent exposures of what toxic gas can cause altered hematopoiesis (pernicious anemia) due to oxidation of cobalt in vit B12 of RBCNitrous Oxide
exposure to what toxic gas releases enkephalinsNitrous Oxide (enkephalins are endogenous opioids/peptides)
toxic liquid/vapor used in dentistry that, when uncured, cause allergy, dizziness, nausea, vomitingMethyl methacrylate
most common toxic herbicide that causes hepatic, renal problemsparaquat
most common toxic rodenticideWarfarin
which toxin is Rapidly acting acting due to high affinity for iron in ferric (Fe3+) state → inactivates mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase = no elec transport chain = no cellular respCyanide
What treatment for Cyanide posioning?100% oxygen and Na2NO2 (Sodium Nitrite)
CN- is Directly inactivated by ______ ______ because it converts it to SCN- which is more readily excretedSodium Thiosulfate
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