robbypowell's version from 2016-08-28 20:52


Question Answer
define: science dealing with interactions between drugs and biological systemsPharmacology
define: practice involving preparation and dispensing of medicinesPharmacy
define: any chemical that produces an effect (good or bad) on cells, tissues, organ systemsDrug
define: drug used for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a conditionMedicine
define: study of poisons, their actions/detection/treatment of conditionsToxicology
T/F: Any drug can be a poison based on doseTrue
T/F: Not all drugs can be considered poisonsFalse (Any drug can be a poison if dose is high enough)
the ______ (smaller/larger) the therapeutic index (TI), the ________ (smaller/larger) the doseSmaller; smaller
define: study of the biological activity of a drug → mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships/SARPharmacodynamics
define: study of absorption, distribution, biotransformation/metabolism, and excretion of the drugPharmacokinetics
define: study of how to properly use the drug for prevention, diagnosis, and tx of diseasePharmacotherapeutics
What is the most common route of drug administration?Oral route
What is the least common route of drug administration?IV route
What is the main drug metabolizing organ of the body?Liver
T/F: most drugs have specific target receptorsTrue
What is the main excreting organ?Kidney
list the 3 minor excretion routesexhalation, saliva, sweat
What route of drug administration has highest bioavailibility because they go DIRECTLY into plasma as free drug or get stored via plasma proteinsIV route
What route of drug administration must first pass through gut and liver before bioavailableOral route
define: length of time before drug's effects occur after administrationOnset
define: length of time a drug's effects last after onsetDuration
T/F: Rapid onset usually means short durationTrue
T/F: Delayed onset usually means longer durationTrue
T/F: Rapid onset usually means longer durationFalse (shorter duration)
T/F: Delayed onset usually means short durationFalse (longer duration)
T/F: Drugs stored via plasma proteins have longer durationTrue
T/F: Drugs stored via plasma proteins have shorter durationFalse (act as reservoir)
T/F: Binding of drug to receptor is usually reversibleTrue
T/F: Binding of drug to receptor is usually irreversibleFalse
T/F: Some drugs have no receptorsTrue (e.g. Anti-cholinesterase & MAO-inhibitors act on substrate, not receptors)
Sympathomimetic drugs _____ (increase/decrease) sympathetic functionIncrease (e.g. Epi & Nor-epi)
Sympatholytic drugs ____ (increase/decrease) sympathetic functionDecrease
weak acids (aspirin) are absorbed in the ______stomach
weak bases (codeine) are absorbed in the ______small intestine
what type of drugs can travel via passive diffusion?Lipid soluble, nonpolar, less charged
T/F: Most drugs are weak electrolytes and their ionization can be affected by environ or pHtrue
define: rate and extent/amt of absorption; determined using AUC = area under the curve (of plasma concentration v. time)Bioavailability
what route of administration has 100% bioavailability?IV route
_____ bioavailability is measured comparing bioavailability of 1 dosage form (route) to IV route administration bioavailability (100%)Absolute Bioavailability
_____ bioavailability is measured comparing bioavailability of 1 dosage form (route) to another route of administration's dosage bioavailability that is NOT IVRelative Bioavailability
Oral, IV, Intramuscular... reorder them from highest bioavailbility to lowestIV > IM > Oral
If two products are for all intents and purposes, the same... then they are said to be _______Bioequivalent
Similar BIOAVAILABILITY between 2 or more drugs means (bioequivalence/therapeutic equivalence)Bioequivalence
Similar RESPONSE between 2 or more drugs means (bioequivalence/therapeutic equivalence)Therapeutic Equivalence
drug products that have same therapeutic moiety but are different salts/esters/complexes of same moiety OR are different dosage forms ; Don’t have same bioavailability are called _______ _______Pharmaceutical Alternatives
____ ____ drugs under go biotransformation in the liverFirst Pass drugs
First Pass drugs have drastically (lower/higher) bioavailabilityLower
T/F: Enterohepatic cycling is associated with multiple peaks and longer ½ life in plasma concentration-time profile of drugsTrue
useful indicator of how drugs are dispersed in different body compartments(Vd) Volume of Distribution (different in diff compartments)

volume stuff

Question Answer
_____ = (amt of drug administered)/(plasma concentration) = Q/CVd (Volume of distribution)
Plasma compartment is usually _____ L3-4 (call it 3.5 L)
Interstitial fluid volume is usually _____ L9 L
Intracellular fluid volume is usually ____ L29 L
Total body fluid volume is usually ____ L41 L
Evans blue only has a Vd of 3L... what compartment is it confined to?Plasma
Mannitol has a Vd of 12... what compartments is it confined to?plasma & interstitial
urea has a Vd of 41... what compartments is it confined to?ALL compartments
A drug that that does not freely and easily distribute would have a (higher/lower) Vd?Lower (confined to plasma for example has Vd of 3)
A drug that distributes freely and easily has a (higher/lower) Vd?Higher (not confined at all would have 41L Vd)
What effect does Liver or Renal failure have on Vd?Increase (because of fluid retention... so just more water everywhere)
What effect does dehydration have on Vd?Decrease (less water everywhere)
Is a drug with low lipid solubility more or less likely to stay in the plasma than a drug with high lipid solubility?More likely (lower Vd)
Thiopental is highly lipid soluble and low protein-binding... would you expect a high or low Vd?High (travels easily through body compartments)
during biotransformation, most drugs are converted into ______ (polar/non-polar) compoundsPolar
microsomal metabolism happens in what cellular site?Smooth ER
non-microsomal metabolism is not in what cellular site, but still in liverSmooth ER
Microsomal ______ inc metabolic rate of itself and co-administered drug, must inc dosage bc of high metabo rateInducers
Microsomal ______ dec metabolic rate of itself and co-administered drug → decrease the dose bc the drugs don’t get metabolized fastInhibitors


Question Answer
does Acidification of urine increase or decrease reabsorption and increase or decrease excretion of weak acid drugs (such as aspirin)increase reabsorption; decrease excretion
does Acidification of urine increase or decrease reabsorption and increase or decrease excretion of weak base drugs (such as codeine)decrease reabsorption; increase excretion
adding _____ to penicillin blocks rapid tubular secretion of penicillin, keeping plasma conc of penicillin higher for a longer timeprobenecid
Biliary excretion (fecal elimination) for drugs with a molecular weight greater than _____>500
what type of excretion for Phenolphthalein?(large MW) so Biliary excretion (fecal elimination)


Question Answer
this type of receptor is affected by membrane voltage changesVoltage gated Ion channel
this type of receptor is mainly seen in nerves, pain meds often blocking Na channels to prevent AP propagationVoltage gated Ion Channel
nicotinic, GABA receptors coupled to Na or Cl channels are an example of this type of receptorLigand-gated Ion Channel
GABA drugs (such as Valium, Diazepam, xanax) open Cl channels and cause hyperpolarization/sedation with this type of receptorLigand-gated Ion Channel
Large class of receptors... seen in Nitric Oxide effectsG-protein coupled
adrenergic receptors creating an amplification of responses through signal transduction are an example of what type of receptor?G-Protein coupled
Epinephrine uses what type of receptor?G-protein coupled
Epinephrine binds to ____ unit of G-protein causing an increase in _____ which makes IP3 and DAG. IP3 results in _____ influx and DAG causes ____ activationAlpha unit; increase in Phospholipase; ip3 causes Calcium influx; DAG causes PKC activation
insulin uses this class of receptorEnzyme-linked receptor
growth hormone uses this class of receptorenzyme-linked receptor
steroid based drugs, such as glucocorticoids, use this type of receptorCytosolic/nuclear (intracellular)
Which type of intracellular receptor (Type 1 or 2) must go to cytoplasm and bind to receptor there BEFORE translocating to nucleus (seen in glucocorticoids)Type 1
Which type of intracellular receptor (Type 1 or 2) goes directly to nucleus to bind to receptor (seen in Thyroid hormone and sex hormones)Type 2
Epinephrine interacts with BETA-adrenergic receptors via what types of bonds?H-bonds, VDW, and Ionic bonds
SAR stands for what?Structure-Activity Relationships


Question Answer
each class of drugs has a _______ (structure necessary for recognition of ligand by its receptor, basic structural unit)pharmacophore
How does acetlycholinesterase act?indirectly inhibits activity of Ach receptors by destroying the amount of substrate (Ach) available
(membrane-bound/intracellular) ______ receptors are often affected by allosterismMembrane-bound
define: magnitude of response related to concentration of drugDose-response relationship (not linear throughout entire range because receptor gets saturated)
_______ theory: follows law of mass action (rate of rxn is directly proportional to the concentration until saturation point), analogous to enzyme interaction with a single substrate yielding a single productOccupation Theory
an ______ agonist binds to the same receptor as agonist but induces the opposite responseINVERSE agonist
what types of drugs can desensitization be seen in?Narcotics/painkillers
The ____ _____ curve: Increased dose gives increased response until receptors are saturated... after this point increasing dose causes diminished increase of responseDose-Response curve
define: dose that gives 50% of the desired response to drugED50
define: ability of agonist to bind to receptorsAffinity
A _____ agonist produces max response while a ______ agonist can never produce a full response, no matter how high the doseFull; Partial
A more potent drug has a (higher/lower) ED50?Lower (less stuff to get same result)
ED50 and EC50 are expressions of a drug's ______Potency (with lower being more potent)

types of antagonist

Question Answer
charcoal absorbs gasPhysical agonist (charcoal physically blocks action of gas)
Histamine (vasodilator → antagonist of vasoconstrictor), epi (vasoconstrictor → antagonist of vasodilation)Physiological agonist
EDTA chelates with Calcium to remove it from blood to get plasma sampleChemical Agonist
binds to the same receptor as antagonist and blocks recepPharmacological
(competitive/non-competitive) antagonists shift DRC of agonist to the right (need higher dose of agonist to achieve same response), no effect on maximum response (surmountable effect)Competitive
(competitive/non-competitive) antagonists depresses max response of agonist (inc amt of agonist does not give same curve as before)Non-competitive
(competitive/non-competitive) antagonists cause reversible changeCompetitive
(competitive/non-competitive) antagonists cause irreversible changeNon-competitive
(neutral antagonist/inverse agonist) has no intrinsic activityNeutral Antagonist
(neutral antagonist/inverse agonist) cause opposite action of agonist upon binding (e.g. this for GABA would cause stimulation)Inverse Agonist
Competitive and Non-competitive inhibition is seen with (neutral antagonists/Inverse Agonists)Neutral Antagonists

routes of administration

Question Answer
MOST COMMON route of administrationOral route
route of administration where mucosal surfaces aid in absorption, gastric emptying time/GI contents influence absorptionOral route
most important organ for absorbing weakly acidic drugsStomach
drug inactivation in GIT (can use enteric coated approach to help it pass through GIT), first pass effect, and enterohepatic circulation are problems with which route?Oral route
this route of administration is best for childrenInhalation
route of administration using gases and/or aerosolsInhalation
IV, IM (birth control, hormones), subcutaneous (insulin) are all types of what drug administration route?Parenteral Injection
skin (transdermal/patches), mucous membrane, vaginal cream and suppositories, eye and ear drops use what type of administration route?Topical Route

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