thirstydog's version from 2015-08-22 13:42


Question Answer
OctreotideGH antagonist (acromegaly and others)
DemeclocyclineADH antagonist
DDVAPADH agonist
LisproRapid acting insulin [5-10min, .5-1.5hr, 6-8hr]
AspartRapid acting insulin [10-20min, 1-3hr, 3-5hr]
GlulisineRapid acting insulin [5-15min, 1-1.5hr, 1-2.5hr]
Regular insulinShort acting insulin [30-60m, 2-4hr, 5-8hr]
NPHIntermediate acting insulin [2-4hr, 6-10hr, 18-28hr]
DetemirLong acting insulin [2hr, no peak, 20hr]
GlargineLong acting insulin [1-4hr, no peak, 20-24hr]
GlyburideSulfonylurea - triggers insulin secretion. SE: weight gain
Biguanide'Metformin' - inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis and increases insulin sensitivity. SE: weight LOSS. CI: renal dz
-glitazonesThiazolidinediones - increase insulin sensitivity SE: weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity
Acarbosealpha-glycosidase inhibitor – delays glucose absorption
Miglitolalpha-glycosidase inhibitor – delays glucose absorption
-agliptinsDDP-4 inhibitors - inhibits breakdown of the enzyme that degrades GLP-1 (increase insulin, decrease glucagon release)
exenatideGLP-1 agonist - increase insulin, decrease glucagon release....SE weight loss
Rapid acting insulinsGlulisine, aspart, lispro
Long acting insulinsGlargine, detemir


Question Answer
Bloody diarrheaSalmonella, Shigella, E Coli 0157:H7, Campylobacter
Campylobacter txErythromycin
Entamoeba histolytica txmetronidazole
E coli 0157:H7 txNO antibiotics - increase chance of HUS
Salmonella txat risk or bacteremic pts w/ TMP-SMX or quinolone
Shigella txTMP-SMX to decrease person to person spread
Carcinoid syndrome dxIncreased urinary 5-HIAA, octreotide scan to localize tumor
Carcinoid syndrome txoctreotide for sx and tumor debulking
Diverticulitis abxAmp-Gent + metronidazole or ciprofloxacin + metronidazole
Chronic HBV txIFN-a, lamivudine, adefovir
Chronic HCV txPeginterferon, ribavirin (CI in preg.)
Budd-Chiari syndromehepatic vein thrombosis 2/2 hypercoagulability
H2 receptor antagonist namesend in "dine"
Metoclopramideincreases motility. Used for gastroporesis and as an antiemetic. Increases parkinsonian effects (don't use) and restless leg


Question Answer
Smudge cells =CLL
Congo red staining, show apple-green birefringence under polarized lightthink amyloidosis
Graft vs host disease pathdonated T cells attack host tissue
Argatropanthrombin inhibitor. Used for patients who had HIT
Rivaroxabandirect Xa inhibitor
Heparinactivates antithrombin --> decreases activity of thrombin and factor Xa
tPA MoAaids conversion of plasminogen to plasmin --> plasmin cleaves thrombin and fibrin clots
ASA MoAirreversibly inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 (anti platelet effect by decreasing platelet formation)
ClopidogrelADP receptor inhibitor - Inhibits glycoprotein 2b/3a from binding to fibrinogen
abciximabGP IIb/IIIa inhibitor
Rituximabmab vs CD20. Tx for NHL, RA (w/ methotrexate), ITP
Anticoagulation for pt in renal failureunfractionated heparin
Hairy cell leukemia dx stain and txTRAP, tx w/ cladribine


Question Answer
ARDS dx(ARDS) Acute onset, Raio PaO2/FiO2 < 200, Diffuse, bilateral infiltrates on CXR, Swann-Ganz catheter < 18 (non-cardiogenic)


Question Answer
Pseduo hyphae + budding yeastcandida
45 degree branching septate hyphaeaspergillus
Narrow based budding yeastcryptococcus
Irregular broad non-septate hyphaemucor
India ink stain forcryptococcal antigen in cryptococcal meningitis
Tx cryptococcal meningitisAmphotericin B
MAC dxincreased alkaline phos. and LDH, biopsy shows foamy macrophages w/ acid-fast bacilli
MAC txclaithromycin + ethambutol +/- rifampin
H ducrei txDoxy
P vivax, P ovale, or unknown strain add ____ to eradicate dormant forms in liverprimaquine
Eggshell calcification on liverhydatid cyst
Halo signaspergillosis
Bacterial meningitis requiring steroids as part of txstrep pneumo
Adenosine deaminase deficiency in immunocompromised kidSCID
DNA repair defect in immunocompromisedAtaxia telectangasia (IgA def.)


Question Answer
Gout imaging and WBCpunched out erosions w/ a rim of cortical bone, 2,000-50,000 WBC
RA imaging and WBCperiarticular osteopenia and joint margin erosions. 2,000-50,000 WBC. +MS
Infectious arthritis imaging and WBCnormal joint space w/ soft tissue swelling. >50,000 WBC
Pseudogout imaging and WBCcalcification of cartilaginous structures (chondrocalcinosis), pyrophosphate dihydrate
Oseoarthritis imaging and WBCjoint space narrowing w/ osteophyte formation, and subchondral sclerosis/cysts. 200-2,000 WBC. +MS
Reactive arthritis sxtriad - Nongonococcal urethritis, asymmetric oligoarthritis, conjuntivitis. Also- muocutaneuos lesions and enthesitis (Achilles tendon pain. Tx NSAIDs
Sausage digitspsoriatic arthritis


Question Answer
Secondary causes of nephrotic syndromediabetes, amyloidosis
Nephrotic + AAFSGS
Nephrotic + HIVFSGS
Nephrotic + HeroinFSGS
Nephrotic + Hep Cmembranoproliferative
MC nephrotic in kidsMinimal change
Adult w/ CA + nephroticmembranous
MC nephrotic in adultsmembranous
Nephrotic + "spike and dome" 2/2 IgG + C3membranous
Nephrotic + "tram track" and decr. C3membranoproliferative
GN + linear anti-GBMGoodpastures
GN + deafness, eye disorderAlport's
anti-GBM GNsAlport's and Goodpastures
GN + positive C-ANCAWegener's
Post-infection GN + normal C3IgA nephropathy
Immune complex GNpost-strep GN and IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis
Cell mediated GNWegener's
Fusion of epithelial foot processesMinimal change
Hep B nephroticmembranous
Hep B GNPolyarteritis nodosa
Thinning of GBMAlport's
GBM splittingAlport's
Diabetic nephropathy seethickened GBM, increased mesangial matrix
GN + HemoptysisGoodpastures


Question Answer
Cause of MVPMyxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve leaflets. When severe may no longer have mid-systolic click. Most common cause of MR in developed world.
Most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest in post-MI pt and mechanismV Fib. Reentry
Hydralazinevasodilation. Arterioles > veins
NitroglycerinVasodilation by releasing NO. Veins >> arteries
Isosorbide dinitrateVasodilation by releasing NO. Veins >> arteries
Niacin SEFlushing (tx w/ aspirin), hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia
Drug to best decrease TGsFibrates
Cyanide toxicity can occur with which cardio mednitroprusside - sx: altered mental status, lactic acidosis, seizures, coma
Amiodarone SEspulmonary fibrosis, hepatotoxicity, thyroid dysfunction, corneal deposits, skin deposits
Mg usetx Torsades and digoxin toxicity
Adenosineused to dx or abolish SVT. MoA - increase K+ out of cell --> hyperpolariazation --> decrease Ca into cell
VerapamilCa channel blocker for SVT and AFib rate control
DiltiazemCa channel blocker for SVT and AFib rate control
AmiodaroneK+ channel blocker. Ventricular tachycardia (wide complex), Afib, Aflutter
QuinidineBoth atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, esp reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT.....(1a - Na channel blocker, decr. conduction, esp in depolarized cells)
ProcainamideBoth atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, esp reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT (good for wide complex).....increase AP duration, increase QT (1a - Na channel blocker)
LidocaineFor acute ventricular arrhythmias (esp post-MI) and digitalis induced arrhythmias. 1b - Na channel blocker
FlecainideSVTs incl. Afib, .... Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV (1c - Na channel blocker)
Digoxin toxicity arrhythmia Atrial tachycardia w/ AV block
Digoxin usessx improvement in CHF, atrial arrhythmias such as AFib
Thiazide dieuretics metabolic SEshyperglycemia, increased LDL and TGs.....hypoNa, hypoK, hyperCa


Question Answer
EPS at 4 hoursacute dystonia - stop drug
EPS at 4 daysakinesia - Benzotropine or amantadine, decr. drug dose
EPS at 4 weeksAkatheisia (restlessness) - decr. neuroleptic, BB or benzos may help
EPS at 4 monthstardive dyskinesia - stop drug