Pharm WCVM exam1 Pt. 2

iqemallios's version from 2015-10-06 07:39

Section 1

Question Answer
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist non-selective (N=M) NaturalAcetylcholine
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist non-selective (N=M) Long actingCarbachol (never systemically)
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist Nicotenic Selective N>>MNicotine (poisoning)
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist Muscarinic Selective (M>>N) ClassicMuscarine
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist Muscarinic Selective (M>>N) Gut motilityBethanechol
Cholinergic Direct acting agonist Muscarinic Selective (M>>N) OpticPilocarpine
Cholinergic Indirect acting agonist (ACHE inhibit) IrreversibleOrganophosphate/ carbomate insecticides
Cholinergic Indirect acting agonist (ACHE inhibit) ReversibleEdrophonium + Neostigmine (Used for myastenia gravis tx and ID)
Cholinergic Antagonist Muscarinic Selective ClassicAtropine (low gastric secretions and increased HR, pupil dilation)
Cholinergic Antagonist Muscarinic Selective ArtificialIpratropium
Cholinergic Antagonist Nn selective Nn>Nm>M HypotensionHexamethonium
Cholinergic Antagonist Nn selective Nn>Nm>M Unclear Importance?Trimethaphan
Cholinergic Antagonists Nm selective Nm> Nn> M long acting (2)Tubocurarine, Pancuronuium
Cholinergic Antagonists Nm selective Nm> Nn> M DepolarizingSuccinyl Choline (first depolarizes =agonist, then blocks future fcn = antag)
Adrenergic Agonist a1=a2, b1=b2Epinephrine
Adrenergic Agonist a1=a2, b1>b2norepinephrine
Adrenergic Agonist b1=b2>>aisoproterenol
Adrenergic Agonist D1>b1>b2>aDopamine (renal vasculature effects)
Adrenergic Agonist b1>b2>aDobutamine (increase heart rate, tx. shock)
Adrenergic Agonist a1>a2>>BPhenylephrine (up BP)
Adrenergic Agonist a2>a1>>BClonidine
Adrenergic Agonist b2>B1>>aterbutaline
Adrenergic Agonist b2>b1>>aAlbuterol/salbutamol (end in OL= usually B2) asthma/delay parturition?
Adrenergic Agonist B3>B1>>B2>>amirabegron, very toxic, not used in vet med.
Adrenergic Alpha Antagonist a1>>>>>>a2Prazosin (tx high BP)
Adrenergic alpha Antagonist a1> a2 irreversiblephenoxybenzamine
Adrenergic alpha Antagonist a1=a2phentolamine (cns effects, decrease BP)
Adrenergic alpha Antagonist a2>>a1Tolazoline (reverse a2 agonists)
Adrenergic Mixed Antagonists B1=B2>/=a1>a2labetalol, carvedilol used in heart failure
Adrenergic Beta Antagonists B1 selective (B1>>>B2)Metoprololol, acebutolol, atenolol (all end in olol= B antag) down BP, and effects aldosterone/kidney
Adrenergic Beta Antagonists B1=B2Propranolol, timolol (t=GLAUCOMA), Not for hypertension, can cause airway constriction
Adrenergic Beta Antagonists B2>>>>B1Butoxamine, no use (reverse B2 agonist?)

Section 2

Question Answer
Loop diuretics MOAInhibits Na+/K+/Cl- symporter in ascending loop of henle
Thiazides MOAInhibit Na+/Cl- symporter in early distal tubule
Potassium sparing MOAAldosterone Antag.
Osmotic MOAOsmotically prevent water return in proximal tubule
Loop diureticFurosemide (fast) Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesia
ThiazideHydrocholoroTHIAZIDE (chronic use)
Potassium sparingSpironolactone (usually combo w other diuretic to spare K+)
OsmoticMannitol (IV only, emergency use, Very large effect)

Section 3

Question Answer
Class 1 anti-arrhythmics MOAProlongs phase 0, Na+ channel inhibitor
Class 2 anti-arrhythmics MOAProlongs phase 2, increases QT length. B1 adrenergic receptor antag.
Class 3 anti-arrhythmics MOASlows heartrate by preventing sympathetic stimulation. B1-adrenergic receptor blocker
Class 4 anti-arrhythmics MOASlow spontaneous depolarization of pacemaker Ca2+ channel inhibitor
What class for refractory?Class 3
What drug not for dogs (class 1)Procainamide
Class 1 drugsQuinidine, procainamide, lidocaine
Class 2 drugsmetoproplol, atenolol
Class 3 drugsamiodarone, bretylium, sotalol
Class 4 drugsverapamil, diltiazem
Antihypertensive class 4?Verapamil
Safest class (if appropriate)?Class 2

Section 4

Question Answer
Nitroglycerine/nitroprusside MOAExogenous sources of NO. Use acutely only (CN buildup)
Digoxin MOAInhibits Na/K/ATPase, secondarily increases Ca (via Na/Ca exchanger)
Dobutamine MOAB1 agonist (B=beat=+ionotroph)
Pimobendan MOAPhosphydiesterase inhibitor
Metoprolol MOAB-blocker, slows heart rate= better CO
Enalapril/Benazepril MOAInhibits Angiotensin converting enzyme = down angiotension II lv, down aldosterone
Valsartan/ losartan MOAblocks angiostensin II action, reduces aldosterone release
Prazosin MOAa1-adrenergic receptor antag. decrease afterload via arteriolar dilation
hydralazine MOAUnknown, maybe sm. mm. Ca, reduced pre/after load

Section 5

Question Answer
Drugs that tx. atrial fibrillationDigoxin
Drugs that tx heat failure acutelyNitroglycerin/ nitroprusside/ dobutamine
Drug group that prof loves, may improve lifespanAce inhibitors
Drugs that may increase lifespan of heart failure animalsEnalapril, benazepril, valsartin, losartin
Drug good for DCM, improve appetite/ improves end stage heart diseasePimobendan
HCM speciescat
DCM speciesdog
HCM suspected drugs to avoidPositive ionotrophs (eg digoxin/pimobendan)
HCM drugs to useDiuretics and B-blockers
Cat other factor maybe predisposingDiet = taurine deficiency
Drugs that have good hypertension txprazosin. hydrazine, nitroglycerine, nitroprusside, pimobendan, enalapril, benazepril, valsartan, losartan
Drug for HCMMetoproprolol
Positive ionotropesDigoxin, Dobutamine, Pimobendan
Cat condition predisposing HCM?Thyroid
Carvedilolmixed b1 a1 antag, decreases afterload too