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Pharm Quiz 2

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isabellepjk's version from 2017-11-09 03:43

GI

Question Answer
Appetite Stim NTGABA; inhibitory
What are the appetitie stimulants, how do they work?Benzos (diazepam and oxazepam) GABA induced action and central inhibition of satiety center in hypothalamus
CATS
cypro for cats has Antihis with anti serotonin action,
Glucocorts, B vitamins, anabolic steroids (megestrol acetate) for BOTH dogs and cats
diazepam is a what for what? for who?benzodiazepine used for appetite stimulation (orexigenic agent). CATS.
cyproheptadine is a what for what? for who?serotonin antagonist used for appetite stimulation (orecigenic agent). CATS. (serotonin suppresses appetite, so inhibit to inc appetite)
glucocorticoids can be used for what? for who?appetite stimulant in both dogs and cats
B-vitamins can be used for what? for who?appetite stimulant for both dogs and cats
anabolic steroids can be used for what? for who?appetite stimulant for both dogs and cats
dirlotapide is used for what, in who, how does it work ? Contraindicaitons?appetite SUPPRESSENT in DOGS; inhibits triglyceride transferprotein which inhibits fat absorption from SI
not for cats, dogs with liver dz, cushings, getting roids, young growings, pregs, nursing, or breeding dogs
antihistamines are used for what?to treat emesis (anti-emetic) DUE TO VESTIBULAR SYSTEM DISTURBANCES (aka motion sickness)
what is saline solution used for?PERIPHERALLY acting emetic
what is 3% hydrogen peroxide used for?PERIPHERALLY acting emetic
what is syrup if ipecac used for? caution in who?PERIPHERALLY acting emetic
Caution in cats
what is emetine?an active irritant alkaloid, active ingredient in ipecac syrup
what is Apomorphine hydrochloride? WHO is it used in? How does it work? Contras?CENTRALLY acting emetic(technically is an opioid too), DOGS (NOTE: conunctival admin, contraindicated in centrally depressed dogs)
stimulates dopamine (D2) receptors in CTZ
what is xylazine? WHO is it used in? HOW does it work? Side effect?CENTRALLY acting EMETIC(technically an alpha-2agonist too), CATS
A2 agonist
bradycard = side effect
cyclizine hydrochloride is a what? How does it work? Side effects?CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Blocks H1 recptors
sedation = sfx
dimenhydrinate is a what? How does it work? Side effects?CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Blocks H1 receptors
sfx = sedation
diphenhydramine hydrochloride is a what? How does it work? Side effects?CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Blocks H1 recptor
sfx = sedation
Scopolamine is a what used for what? What class? Sfx?CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic for treating motion sickness (anti M1)
Antimusc
Sfx = xerostomia, drowsiness, constipation, urinary retention
chlorpromazine and acepromazine are what used for what? HOW does it work? Sfx? Contra? Other?Phenothiazine derivative used as a CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Antidopaminergic a1 ANTagonist with minimal antihistaminergic anticholinergic effects; blocks vomiting at CTZ and emetic center
Sfx: sedation, altered involuntary motor activity, hypotension (dt vasoDIL)
Contra- animals with seizures
triflupromazine is a what used for what?Phenothiazine derivative used as a CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Antidopaminergic a1 ANTagonist with minimal antihistaminergic anticholinergic effects; blocks vomiting at CTZ and emetic center
Sfx: sedation, altered involuntary motor activity, hypotension (dt vasoDIL)
Contra- animals with seizures
prochlorperazine is a what used for what?Phenothiazine derivative used as a CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Antidopaminergic a1 ANTagonist with minimal antihistaminergic anticholinergic effects; blocks vomiting at CTZ and emetic center
Sfx: sedation, altered involuntary motor activity, hypotension (dt vasoDIL)
Contra- animals with seizures
promethazine is a what used for what?Phenothiazine derivative used as a CENTRALLY acting ANTI-emetic
Antidopaminergic a1 ANTagonist with minimal antihistaminergic anticholinergic effects; blocks vomiting at CTZ and emetic center
Sfx: sedation, altered involuntary motor activity, hypotension (dt vasoDIL)
Contra- animals with seizures
Haloperidol is a what used for what? Sfx?(Butyrophenones)Centrally acting anti-emetics, antagonizes dopamine receptors
sfx =sedation and hypotension
droperidol is a what used for what? sfx?(Butyrophenones)Centrally acting anti-emetics, antagonizes dopamine receptors
sfx =sedation and hypotension
Granisetron is a what used for what?Peripheral 5-HT3 serotonin antagonists in GIT and block NT in CTZ, used for controling emesis induced by chemotherapeutic agents/radiation therapy in small animals
Ondansetron is a what used for what?Peripheral 5-HT3 serotonin antagonists in GIT and block NT in CTZ , used for controling emesis induced by chemotherapeutic agents/radiation therapy in small animals
Maropitant citrate is a what used for what? How does it works? Contra?NK-1 receptor blocker - blocks substance P , centrally acting anti-emetic to prevent motion sickness (FDA approved)
causes bone marrow hypocellularity in young puppies
Glycopyrrolate is a what used for what? MOA? Sfx?(modulator of gastric motility) Anticholinergics/antimuscarinics acting peripherally as anti-emetics
Inhibits peripheral cholinergic transmission, Inhibits vagal afferent impulses, inhibits GO smooth muscle spasms, reduces gastro-enteric secretions
Sfx: Delays gastric emptying
propantheline and atropine are what used for what? MOA? Sfx?(modulator of gastric motility) Anticholinergics/antimuscarinics acting peripherally as anti-emetics
Inhibits peripheral cholinergic transmission, Inhibits vagal afferent impulses, inhibits GO smooth muscle spasms, reduces gastro-enteric secretions
Non selective action on M 1, 2, and 3
Sfx: Delays gastric emptying
methscopolamine is a what used for what?
MOA? Sfx?
(modulator of gastric motility) Anticholinergics/antimuscarinics acting peripherally as anti-emetics
Inhibits peripheral cholinergic transmission, Inhibits vagal afferent impulses, inhibits GO smooth muscle spasms, reduces gastro-enteric secretions
Sfx: Delays gastric emptying
metoclopramide is a what for what? HOW does it work? Sfx? Other?a prokinetic agent (5HT4 agonist) (favor rapid gastric emptying) used as a peripherally acting anti-emetic
Dopamine and 5ht3 ANTAGONIST; antagonizes apomorphine induced emesis
Well abosrbed by GIT; undergoes first pass effect
sfx: HORSES AND CATS get hyperreactivity, restlessness and tremors
AND
central dopamine antagonist (works as an antiemetic AND as a prokinetic agent--> inc ACH release from cholinergic neurons--> stim muscarinic receptors of GIT--> prokinetic action)
blocks inhibitory effects of dopamine, sensitixes intestinal smooth muscle to ACh
ANTAGONIZES EMESIS BY increases tone of of lowe resoph sphincter, increases force and frequency of contractions
use in reflux esophagitis and gastric motility disorders
domperidone is a what for what?a prokinetic agent(favor rapid gastric emptying) used as a peripherally acting anti-emetic
kaolin is a what for what?cytoprotective agent which can act as a peripherally-acting anti-emetic
pectin is a what for what?cytoprotective agent which can act as a peripherally-acting anti-emetic
bismuth salts is a what for what?cytoprotective agent which can act as a peripherally-acting anti-emetic
Pirenzepine is a what used for what?selective antimuscarinic agent (anti-M1) which is used to reduce gastric acid secretion (eat pi, say M, and it soaks up the acid)
Cimetidine is a what used for what? What is important about it? Side fx?H2 antagonist to dec gastric acid secretions. WEAKEST. (inhibit CYP450--> can use in acetminophen tox)
well absorbed but food delays it
good oral bioavail
posses immuno-modulatory effect to stimulate t-cell mediated immunity
Sfx: TOmbocytpenia, cutaneous drug eruption in cats
Ranitidine is a what used for what?H2 antagonist to dec gastric acid secretions.
inhibits AChE action
Famotidine is a what used for what?H2 antagonist to dec gastric acid secretions. STRONGEST
POOR oral absorption
Nizatidine is a what used for what?H2 antagonist to dec gastric acid secretions. PREFERRED FOR PT WITH LIVER DZ
rapidly and completely absorbed
inhibits AChE action
Omeprazole is a what? Clinical indications? side fx?Proton pump inhibitor (irreversible and most potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. Also choice to be combined with abx for helicobacter pylori infxn)
ulcers, gastrinomas, severe GERD, h pylori with clarithromycin
sfx: suppression of acid barrier, increase bacterial load in the stomach leading to aspiration pneumonia in DOGS, hypergastrinemia, and inhibits the metabolism of drugs given at the same time d/t ihibiton of CP450
Misoprostol is a what? for what? Side effects? Contra? important?Prostaglandin E1 analogue. Use for (1) Dec secretion of acid DOESNT ALTER HORMONE GASTRIN LEVELS-->DOES NOT CAUSE REBOUND ACID HYPERSECRETION! (2) cytoprotective by INC the following; BF, epithelial cell turnover rate, mast cell stabilizations, bicarb secretion, and mucus production
causes diarrhea and stimulated uterine contractino so should not be used in pregs
magnesium hydroxide is a what? Used in what? MOA? Side effects?NON-systemic antacid (cytoprotective agent). laxative in nature
Increases gastric pH higher than aluminum hydroxide
causes gastric distension as a side effect
aluminium hydroxide is a what? Used in what? MOA? Side effects?NON-systemic antacid (cytoprotective agent). causes constipation!
Inactivates pepsin, binds bile salts, and induces local PG synthesis; Reduces serum phosphate concentration in patients with renal failure
For Mild ruminal acidosis
Can cause constipation
calcium carbonate is a what?NON-systemic antacid (cytoprotective agent)
sodium bicarbonate is a what?SYSTEMIC antacid (cytoprotective agent). might cause metabolic alkalosis, or liberation of CO2 from GI--> bleching or ruminal bloat
Sucralfate is a what? What is importantcytoprotective agent which binds to ulcerated areas to form a protective layer. NEEDS ACIDIC pH TO WORK so don't give it with antacids, H2 antags or PPIs
stimulates secretion of mucus and bicarb by parietal cells, binds epidermal growth factor on ulcerated tissues, increase mucosal BF by inducing local NO and pg production
Bismuth subsalicylate is a what that does what?cytoprotective agent. cleaves and the bismuth ADsorbs the E coli toxins. CAUTION IN CATS BC NEED GLUCORONIDATION
Bethanechol is a what that does what?
Clinical indications? Side effects? Contraindications?
cholinergic agonist which stims GI motility and amplitude
Use for postop ileus and GI muscle atony
sfx: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, salivation, bradycardia
Contras: Mechanical obs of intestines, animals with peritonitis, and if the intestinal wall is less viable
carbachol is a what that does what?cholinergic agonist which stims GI motility
Metoclopramide is a what that does what?
Cisapride is a what that does what?a prokinetic with BROAD spectrum of activity, is also able to treat megacolon in cats
dose dependent
increases ach release and cholinergic NT
pore potent than metoclop
Uses: gastric motility disorders, postop ileus in horses, and constipation and megacolon in cats
Domperidone is a what that does what?a prokinetic when action peripherally (is a dopamine antagonist)
morphine is a what that does what?opioid which decreases GI motility and gastric acid secretions
fentanyl is a what that does what?opioid which decreases GI motility and gastric acid secretions
meperidine is a what that does what?opioid which decreases GI motility and gastric acid secretions
diphenoxylate is a what that does what?opioid which decreases GI motility and gastric acid secretions
loperamide is a what that does what?opioid which decreases GI motility and gastric acid secretions
Difenoxin is a what that does what?active metabolite of diphenoxylate (which is a Meperidine congener, and meperidine is an opioid). used for decreasing GI motility and gastric acid secretions
Loperamide is a what that does what?Meperidine congener (meperidine is an opioid) used to dec GI motility. SAFE FOR CATS!
Paregoric is a what that does what?opioid which is used to dec GI motility--> preferred anti-diarrheal preparation in foals
Activated charcoal is a what that does what?adsorbent which is used in emergency treatment of poisoning
Cholestyramine is a what that does what? basic anion–exchange resin which is an adsorbent used to bind up bile salts
mineral oil is a what that does what?emollient laxatives. very safe. IF CHRONIC USE, might lead to development of granulomatous lesions in intestinal wall and liver. ALSO chronic use may impair absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), other nutrients and co-administered drugs
Docusate sodium (dioctylsodium sulfosuccinate) is a what that does what?emollient laxatives. is an anionic surface active agent. dont use with mineral oil (will cause oil to be absorbed) also treats frothy bloat
Methylcellulose is a what?bulk forming laxative
carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a what?bulk forming laxative
bran (wheat fibre) is a what?bulk forming laxative
Psyllium granules is a what?bulk forming laxative
Magnesium sulphate(Epsom salt) is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative
Sodium sulphate(Glauber’s salt) is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative
Milk of magnesia is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative
mannitol is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative
sorbitol is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative
lactulose is a what?saline(osmotic) purgative. synthetic disaccharide which liberates acid salts, which dec intestinal pH (more acidic), which exerts osmotic effects. ALSO USE FOR HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (acidic pH alters ammonium so it wont be absorbed by systemic circulation)
tx hepatic encephalopathylactulose (dec intestinal pH, prevenets ammonium from being absorbed)
castor oil is a what? Irritant (stimulant) cathartics
anthraquinones is a what? Irritant (stimulant) cathartics
ricinoleic acid is a what?irritant cathartic which comes from cator oil which is acted upon by pancreatic lipases
emodins is what?anthraquinoes are acted upon by the enzymes in the large intestine to produce this, which acts as a irritant cathartic
Glycocholate and taurocholate saltsCholeretic used to dissolve gall stones
Ursodeoxycholic acidCholeretic used to dissolve gall stones
DimethiconeUsed to tx frothy bloat.
PoloxaleneUsed to tx frothy bloat.
Docusate sodiumalso an emollent laxative. Used to tx frothy bloat.
What is the appetite suppressant NT?serotonin is excitatory
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