Pharm pain control

olola's version from 2016-10-04 02:39


Question Answer
dosage for codeine30-60 mg
what gives the most pain relief400 mg ibuprofen
Percocet325mg APA + 5 mg oxycodone
Vicoprofen200 mg ibuprofen + 7.5 mg hydrocodone
Combunox400 mg ibuprofen + 5 mg oxycodone
relative strengths of opioidsmorphine or oxycodone > hydrocodone > codeine
max daily dosage recommendation for APA<4g
dose of APA650-1000 mg
max daily dose of ibuprofen2.4 g
most common dose of ibuprofen400 mg 4x a day, 1600mg total
1 grain codeine60 mg of codeine, found in Tylenol #4
max daily dose of aspirin2000 mg
for maximum effectiveness, it is necessary to give _____ of aspirin650-1000mg
psychedelic drugs mainly bind to this receptorsigma receptors (NOT TRUE opioid receptors)
therapeutic dose of opioids for mod-severe pain relief10mg/70kg of morphine IV
Antitussive dose of codeine15-20 mg
Analgesic dose of codeine30-60 mg
serotonin syndrome is associated withmeperidine
meperidineatropine-like activity, serotonin syndrome, cardiovascular instability, CNS excitation
NeuroleptanalgesiaInnovar = fentanyl + droperidol
lethal dose of caffeine10 g oral
euphoric effects of amphetamines caused bycentral release of dopamine from VTA
anxious feelings of amphetamines caused byrelease of norepi centrally + peripherally
use Doxapram to treatacute hypercapnia in COPD, adjunct as respiratory stimulant after general anesthesia
adverse reaction of Doxapramtonic-clonic convulsions
use caffeine to treatto prevent recurrent apnea in premature infants
use amphetamines to treatnarcolepsy, ADHD, suppress appetite
benzodiazepines, low/moderate/high potential of physical dependence?low
strong psychological dependence occurs for sedative hypnotics that ____have high affinity for BDZ-2 receptors, such as Alprazolam, and are short-acting
withdrawal syndromes are more severe for these drugssedative-hypnotics, include tremor, hallucination, nervousness, increased blood pressure, XEROSTOMIA, JAW AND TEETH PAIN
"constellation of CNS and peripheral effects"psychomotor stimulants, aka amphetamines, cocaine
Schedule II synthetic canniboid drugsDronabinol, Nabilone
Anandamideendogenous ligand for canniboid receptors

Schedule of drugs

Question Answer
Schedule Iheroin, LSD, marijuana, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin
Schedule IIamphetamines, cocaine, codeine, methadone, meperidine, morphine, oxycodone, Tapentadol, hydrocodone
Schedule IIImixtures of codeine or hydrocodone with aspirin or acetaminophen
Schedule IVchloral hydrate, diazepam, phenobarbital, Tramadol
Schedule Vcough preparation scontaining codeine

Selected Drug Actions in the CNS

Question Answer
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for OpioidsPAG/medulla/spinal cord, presynaptic inhibition
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Benzodiazepineslimbic system/cerebral cortex, GABA potentiation
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Local Anestheticsnonselective, Na+ channel blockade
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Antihypertensives (Clonidine)medulla, alpha-2 adrenoceptor stimulation
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Inhalation anesthetics (Isoflurane)reticular formation, ion-channel blockade
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Antiparkinson agents (L-dopa)basal ganglia, increased dopamine synthesis
Major site(s) of action and Mechanism for Antipsychotics (Haloperiodol)limbic system/reticular formation, dopamine receptor antagonism


Question Answer
Histamine as a neurotransmittercan be excitatory amine (H1 receptor), or an inhibitory amine (H2 receptor)
Dopamine as a neurotransmitterinhibitory
use of AnticholinergicsParkinsons, prophylaxis of motion sickness, Physostigmine for tx of acute delirium tremens, Tacrine for improving memory in Alzheimer
biogenic aminesDopamine, Norepi, Epi, Serotonin, Histamine
Norepibrainstem neurons within LOCUS CERULEUS, postganglionic, modulates affective disorders, learning, memory, reward, sleep, pain perception
Epicell bodies of reticular formation
Serotoninmidline raphe nuclei of brainstem, modulates sleep, pain, affective states
Histaminehypothalamus, blockade will cause drowsiness
Excitatory amino acidsglutamate, aspartate, cysteine, monocystic acid
Inhibitory amino acidsGABA, glycine, taurine, B-alanine, adenosine
the 3 major barbituratesthiopental, pentobarbital, phenobarbital
Meprobamatenon-benzodiazepine used as an anxiolytic drug; replaced by the benzodiazepines due to their wider therapeutic index (lower risk of toxicity at therapeutically prescribed doses) and lower incidence of serious side effects.
Chemistry of Benzodiazepines- Addition of Cl will impart _____ while addition of NO2 will impart ______anxiolytic effect, anticonvulsant effect (i.e. clonazepam)
Benzodiazepines are indicated/contraindicated in cardiac patients?INDICATED to decrease anxiety
adverse effects of intra-arterial injection of benzodiazepinesischemia, gangrene
____ causes hyperalgesiaPGE2, by sensitizing nociceptive receptors to histamine + bradykinin
_______ are converted to APAPAcetanilid & Phenacetin
anti-inflammatory effect of acetaminophenNO anti-inflammatory effect, has analgesic + antipyretic
interaction of APAP with _____ reduces its effectivenessperoxide (present in inflamed tissues)
_______ are used for patients for whom aspirin/NSAIDs are contraindicatedacetaminophen
major metabolite of acetaminophenN-acetyl-benzoquinonimine, can cause hepatoxicity if dose exceeds 4/day
treatment of toxic doses of acetaminophenN-acetylcysteine and gastric lavage
________ is similar to ibuprofen but doesn't interact with oral anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents, b/c don't compete for same binding sitesNaproxen
_____ is a NSAID with issues with renal toxicityKetorolac, don't take for more than 5 days. has antiplatelet activity and is contraindicated before surgery
_____ is a derivative of salicylic acid but not metabolized to salicylate, and has an extended duration of actionDiflunisal
______ is an important site of action of opioidsperiaqueductal gray matter, descending pathway is indirect (synaptic relay in the medulla)
sites of action of opioidsperiaqueductal gray matter, rostro-ventral matter, dorsal horn of spinal cord