Pharm final

lizamariereagan's version from 2015-04-28 17:13


Question Answer
f=% bioavailability/100
f= (when looking at graph of oral and IV dose)(area under oral curve x IV dose) / area under IV curve X oral dose)
Vd=amount if drug in the body (mg) /plasma drug concentration (mg/L)
t (1/2) = .693 X Vd / CL
t (1/2) =(Vd x ln2) / CL
CL =rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug concentration = Vd x Ke


Question Answer
Loading dose = Cp x Vd / F OR Vd x Cp / [bioavailability fraction]
Maintenance dose = Cp x CL x tau / F = infusion rate x tau OR Cp x CL / [bioavailability fraction]
infusion rate = CL x Cp
what is Cp?target plasma concentration at steady state
what is taudosage interval (time between doses), if not administered continuously


Question Answer
what drugs lead to increased absorption of na+ in PT?NSAIDS, ACE inhibitors and thiazide diuretics
how is lithium metabolized?exclusively kidney
what does lithium follow in kidney?Na+
what drug is ticlodipine like?clopidogrel


Question Answer
what is desmopressin?an ADH analog
what does desmopressin treat?central diabetes insidious
name the atypical antipsychoticsit's atypical for old closets to quietly riser from A to Z (olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone
antidote for aluminum toxicity?deferoxamine
what do you give to treat EPS?benztropine or diphenhydramine


Question Answer
empiric coverage for bacterial meningitis?vancomycin and third generation cephalosporin
profile for viral meningitis?normal/increased opening pressure, increased lymphocytes, normal/increased proteins, normal sugar
profile for bacterial meningitis?increased opening pressure, increased PMN's, increased proteins and decreased sugar
if they person has viral meningitis, what is it usually and what do you give?HSV and give acyclovirs
name some anabolic steroidstestosterone, methyl testosterone


Question Answer
what do anabolic steroids treat?hypogonadism, promote recovery after burn or injury
adverse side effect of anabolic steroid?premature closure of epiphyseal plates due to calcium deposition
mechanism of vincristine/vinblastine?m-phase arrest; bind to beta tubulin
indication for vincristine/vinblastine?solid tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, wilms tumor
side fx of vincristine?neurotoxicity (areflexia, peripheral neuritis), paralytic ileum
side fx of vinblastine?bone marrow suppression


Question Answer
mech of resistance for aminoglycosides?bacterial tranferase enzymes inactivate the drug by acetylation, phosphorylation or adenylation
what does etoposide/teniposide inhibit?topoisomers II --> more chromosomal breaks in dividing cells
what phase does etoposide act in?G2
what is a side effect of etoposide?alopecia
mech of hydroxyurea?inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, leads to decreased dna synthesis (s phase specific; ALSO increased HbF synthesis
use of hydroxyurea?CML and sickle cell disease
target of rituximab?CD20


Question Answer
target of infliximab/ adalimumab?TNF-alpha (which decreases macrophage function and reactivate latent TB)
target of abciximab?platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor
drugs that act on microtubules?"microtubules get constructed very poorly" mebendazole, griseofulvin, colchicine, vincristine/vinblastine, paclitaxel
use of paclitaxel?ovarian and breast carcinomas
mech of paclitaxel?stable microtubules
what is the antidote to acetaminophen overdose and how does it work?n-acetylcysteine - it is a reducing agent that replenishes glutathione


Question Answer
common cause of pneumonia in CF patients?pseudomonas
what do you use to treat pneumonia in CF patients?animo glycosides
mech of azathioprine?inhibits purine synthesis
use of azathioprine?IBD chronic control
side effect of azathioprine?leukopenia - subject to more infections


Question Answer
interferon alpha treats?chronic hep B and C, kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, condyloma acuminatum, RCC and malignant melanoma
interferon beta treats?MS
interferon gamma treats?chronic granulomatous disease
heroin, methadone and morphine are allopiates!