Pharm Final!

erryday's version from 2016-05-11 11:27


Question Answer
Amoxicillin is sensitive to what? If you combine it with Clavulanic Acid what will it inhibit?Amoxicillin (penicillin antibiotic) sensitive to Beta lactamase. Given with Clavulanic Acid (B-lactamase Inhibitor) it will inhibit B-Lactamase
Fluroquinolones inhibit what?DNA gyrase-->inhibits DNA synthesis ex. Enrofloxacin
Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Streptomycin, Amikacin, etc) kill bacteria by which method?Bacteriocidial (only protein sythesis inhibitor that is -cidal and not -static)
Do potentiated sulfonamides affect the cell membrane?NOOO, they inhibit folic acid synthesis because they are structural analog of PABA (PABA Agonist) which irreversibly blocks dihydroperoic acid --->inhibits folic acid syth.
Tetracycline have what side effects?TOOTH MOTTLING , GI upset , Hepatotoxicity, Chelates Ca2+ Phototoxicity, Anaphylaxis, Renal Tubular Damage, Super Infections
Erythromycin is useful again what type of bacteria? What is its ABx class?Erthromycin is good for G+,specifically CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI. It is Macrolide (bacteriostatic)
If you had a meningeal infection which ABx would you choose, due to its ability to have obtain high concentration in the brain?CEFUROXIME (2nd gen Cephalosporin, G- aeorbic) given oral and has CSF penetration
Nitrofurans (Misc. ABx, synthetic) disrupt what ?Nitrofurans (banned in food animals) INHIBIT BACTERIAL ENERGY PRODUCTION, blocks oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Lincomycin would have what effect on horses?Lincomycin ( Linocasmide,bacteriostatic, 50s/-static) causes -->FATAL ENTERCOLITIS, disrupts GIT floral in rabbits horse and ruminants
Florofenicol has what type of spectrum?Broad spectrum (Chloramphenicol Deriv. 50s binder/-static, CAN BE USED IN FOOD ANIMALS, more resistant to inactivation)
Rifampin affects what (MOA)? Inhibits DNA dependent RNA synthesis,Broad Spec,accumulates in macrophages
Why must Vancomycin be administered slowly when given IV?Releases Histamine
Which antibiotic cause an undesirable neuromuscular blockade?Aminoglycosides,curare like affect (non-depolarizing) toxicity if given too high conc. or too quickly
Antimicrobial agent used against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa?Metronidazole, don't use with food animals, Inhibits DNA synth
Cisapride MOA ?Serotonin 4 agonist, Prokinetic with broadest spectrum of action, txt Megacolon in cats,
Which drug inhibits proton pumps in the GIT?Omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor, prevents gastric acid secretion (PRODRUG, inhibits CYP450)
Most potent H2 antagonist?Famotidine (side effect:rebound acid hypersecretion)
What would you use for a sand impaction in the GIT?Psyllium
What is Difenoxin and its MOA?Active metabolite of Diphenoxylate (Meperidine congeners, opioid ) used as a inhibitor of GIT motility and secretion
Cats and Xylazine what will happen when they mix?in low doses Xylazine is a centrally acting emetic, sedation if given IM (stimulates a2 in CTZ) too high of a dose leads to bradycardia!
Emergency txt for poison?Activated Charcoal
Apomorphine is antagonized by what drug?METOCLOPRAMIDE (anti-emesis in dogs) --> antagonist of Dopamine thus blocking apomorphine
Lactulose what is it and where does it take action? Contradictions?saline purgative that passes undigested to the Large intestine --> lower pH and exerts osmotic effect. Contradicted with dehydrated animals!
Concentrated Magnesium sulfate acts as an?Cholagogue agent--> causes contraction of gall bladder--> release of CCK from upper sm. intestine
Diltiazem? MOACalcium channel blockers(Ca2+ anatag./ Class IV anti arrhythmic ) in cardiac cell & vascular smooth muscle and inhibits Ca++ influx into the cell (slows conductance, decr. contractile force & vasodilation
Does Digitalis act on renal tubules?NOoooo, but it is a cardiac glycosides that induces diuresis by causing positive inotropic action on the heart muscle. This is due to inhibition of Na+/K+ - ATPase enzyme in sarcolemmal membrane of cardiac tissue. Diuretic response to digitalis is secondary to circulatory improvement and is not from a direct effect on the kidney.
Will edema NOT CAUSED by the heart be resolved with digitalis?NO Digitalis does not induce diuresis if edema is not cardiogenic.
Digoxin safety and side effects, how do we monitor for toxicity?Digoxin has a narrow range of safety. SE-->mild GI disturbances to protracted diarrhea, chronic weight loss and arrhythmias. MONITOR K+ SERUM LEVELS--> hypokalcemia--> less K+--> less competition for Digoxin to bind to Na+/K+ ATPase--> arrhythmia/death
Quinidine-Digoxin interaction?Digoxin is displaced of its binding site by Quinidine --> this could cause more Digoxin to float around in blood and cause toxicity--> reduce Digoxin dose by 1/2 when using both.
Bretylium causes what ?Class III anti-arrhythmic drug that produces a “pure” prolongation of the action potential, thereby extending the refractory period. no halogenated anesthetics. tx ventricular arrythmias
What class of drugs should not be given with Ca2+ channel Blockers?Beta Blockers--> the negative inotropic action of the B-blocker would predispose the patient to the development of AV block.
Does Pimobendin inhibit Angiotensin II?NO pimobendin is a selective inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase III enzyme-->produces positive inotropic effect and vasodilation
Prazosin MOAselective alpha1-adrenergic blocking agent. ** Prazosin produces vasodilation with minimal reflex tachycardia**. Peripheral vasodilation induced by prazosin hydrochloride is found to be effective for dogs with CHF that are refractory to digoxin.
Should NSAIDS be given with ACE inhibitors ("-pril", B blockers) ?**NO** Nsaids normally decrease hypotensive effects therefore if you give them with ACE inhibs.(Enapril,Captopril, etc.) you will counteract anti-hypertensive effects.
MOA of Class 1A anti-arrhythmic?reduces phase 0 of the action potential-->prolong the duration of action potential and refractory period--> ex. Quinidine, procainamide
Which anti- arrhythmic treats hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the main cause of arrhythmias (tachyarrhythmias)?Class II anti-arrhythmic Beta -blockers --> propanalol, metoprolol
Which Class 1B anti-arrhythmic is used with drug resistant ventricular arrhythmias?***APRINDINE***alternative drug for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmia in dogs (resistant to other drugs)
Dopamine induced vasodilation would be beneficial in treating what?Renal Failure
Mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides?Acts by inhibition of Na+/K+ATPase enzyme--> incr. intracellular sodium conc. in sarcomere-->Increases myocardial contraction (tx CHF) --> DIGOXIN
How would a sympathomimetic effect the pupil?**DILATION** -->ex. apraclonidine
Do subconjunctival injections lead to sustained drug release?large depot storage--> lead to sustained drug release
Which drug delivery system is for prolonged time on the surface of the eye?Gel formation/ ointment
What is the best choice antibiotic for corneal ulcers and bacterial conjunctivitis?Neomycin and polymyxin B combo
Do antifungals penetrate the intact cornea?NO (b/c its a lipid barrier)
Would you use Chloramphenicol in the treatment of Glaucoma?NOOooooo antimicrobials
What would you treat respiratory tract fungal infections with?AZOLES (ketoconazole)
Looking to Decrease MIC50?Doxycycline (apparently this was answer, probably some dumb graph)
MOA of antitussives?They are OPIOIDS that **suppress medullary cough center**--> use only with severe non-productive cough dextrometorphan
Does erythromycin have an effect on airway resistance?NOPPPERS but these do Ach M3 antagonists (Ipratropium bromide, atropine) , β2-agonists (Clenbuterol), PDE-inhibitors (xanthine), sympathetic amines (adrenaline)
Are NSAIDS safe to use with asthma patients?NO, nsaids block PG and cause vasoconstriction

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