Pharm final review 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-05-08 19:21


Question Answer
MOA – inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites)Sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines
Sulfonamides MOA? spectrum? inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites). BROAD spectrum (all bact need folic acid!)
diaminopyrimidines MOA? inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites)
Sulfonamides- static or cidal?static (Sulfa Stop)
diaminopyrimidies- static or cidal?static (You'd think DIe would be cidal, but it's like sulfa, so it's STOP)
what is the effect of combining sulfonamides and diaminopyrimidines?static+static=cidal (SYNERGISM) **UNUSUAL!
static+static=additive effect
cidal+cidal=synergism (sum greater than its parts)
If you are combining trimethoprim and sulfadiazine, what is the ratio?Trimeth + sulfa = 5 parts sulfa + 1 part trimeth (S looks like a 5)
Sulfasalazine for what?colitis in dogs
*what are sulfonamides good for tx?potent for g+ and g-, and include coccidia (sulfur will burn big(+) and small(-) cocks)
Sulfaquinoxaline for what?coccidiosis in chickens
Sulfaguanidine for what?Rumi GI Guana GI
Sulfacetamide for what?eye ointments (neutral pH)
Silver Sulfadiazine for what?topical
mafenide is a what for what?sulfa for topical admin
Statics are?tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol and derivatives, Macrolides, lincomycin, Sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines (Mac Lin the pool with Chlorine will leave behind 4 times more sulfur- makes me want to STOP going with him or die)
Pyrimethamine used for? what is it?diamino, protozon (PYRI like a PYthon, squeezing protozoans to death)
Ormetoprim is a what used for what?diamino, Ruminants (---or cows)
immunological tox of sulfas?KCS, hepatic necrosis (sulfur burns your eyes and poisons your liver)
non-immunological tox of sulfas? how can you resolve this?NEPHROTOX DUE TO CRYSTAL FORMATION (bc drug acetylated). Try to alkalyze urine to reduce this effect
unique side effects of sulfas in dogsiatrogenic hypothyroidism
how do beta lactams work?Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to PBPs (Penicillin Binding Proteins) & stopping transpeptidase
how can bact be resistant to beta-lactams?make beta-lactamase, dec permeability to antimicrobial, dec sensitivity of PBP (penicillin binding protein) to antimicrobial
Penicillins belong to what group?Beta-lactams
Cephalosporins belong to what group?Beta-lactams
Cephamycins belong to what group?Beta-lactams
Carbapenems belong to what group?Beta-lactams
Monobactams belong to what group?Beta-lactams
Penicillin G belongs to which penicillin group, and what is the admin?natural, parenteral
how can you prolong the life of penicillin G drugs?add to oil
NEVER IV penicillins areBenzathine, Procaine (BEN put PROpANE in his VEINS and died)
which penicillin group can you give orally, and what kinda penicillin is this group?penicillin V, naturals
Cloxacillin is for?eye (I'll clox you in the eye)
what are the semi-synthetic penicillins? Are they resistant?cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, methicillin, naficillin (cloned(cloned is semisynth) oxen dye me (resistant) navy) (yes resistant)
what is the spectrum for aminoglycosides?NARROW--> Aerobic G-s (amy is narrow minded and negative, but is somehow still breathing)
drug for treating toxoplasma gondii?CLINDAMYCIN!
which drug group requires glucoronidation, so is at higher risk for tox in cats?chloramphenicols
This drug should never be given with dairy products or antacids? what other side effect is related to this?TETRACYCLINE because it chelates calcium (so will also mess up your teeth) (this is same fr fluoroquinolones)
which group of drugs causes arthropathy?FLOROQUINOLONES! (bc it chelates with Mg) (FLO from the commercials stabbing you in the knee)
aminoglycosides have which tox?nephrotox, ototox, and NM blockade (Ami's kidneys are probably shot, as well as her hearing, and by the way she dances youd think she had a neuromuscular problem too)
which abx causes cardiac toxicity when given IV?Tilmicosin (a macrolide) ( TIL my HEART stops)
which abx should you NEVER give to horses? Which group?TYLOSIN FATAL IN HORSES (TYLOSIN--> Tyson horse meat factory means dead horses) (and mac likes killing horses)
Dobermans are sensitive to what abx?sulfas (doberman with sulfur-y farts is BAD)
Cats are sensitive to what abx? why?Chloramphenicol (bc glucoronidate) (dont dip your cats in CHLORINE)
explain penicillin excretion, and how we can manipulate thispenicillin stays mainly in EC space(so do aminoglycosides), so, excreted unchanged via kidneys. Can use the drug probenacide to compete for excretion at the tubules and prolong life of the penicillin.
what are the 5 beta-lactams?penicillins, Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Carbapenems, Monobactams (one (mono) pen in the CAR engine will make a cepha-cepha sound)
what are the 30s protein groups? 50s?AT30, you will have 50 Mean Little Cats!! 30= aminoglycosides, tetracyclines. 50= Macrolides, lincosamides, chloramphenicol
work on DNA? flouroquinolones, metronidazole (flo takes the metro to come find you)
work on RNA? rifampin (only one that starts with R, lol)
works on cell membrane?polymyxin B and colistin (cell membranes are liquid, so you can MYX them up with even a COLIn)
works on folic acid synth?sulfonamides and diaminopyrimidines (if instead of folic acid, you get sulfur, youd die too)
which drugs work on the cell wall?beta lactams (monobactams, penicillin, carbapenams, cephalosporin, cephamycins), bactitracin, vancomycin, cycloserine. (CYCling on a WALL in VANcouver while holding a BETA in the bowl and then BACin' it up)
which drug has dose-dependent bone marrow suppression, and why?chloramphenicol, because it can permeate the mitocondria and inhibit mitochondrial protein synth in the host, which suppresses the bone marrow.
which abx is known for having resistance RAPIDLY developed against it?rifampin (the RNA one) (rif is a ripoff if you dont use it right)
what are the diaminopyrimidines?Pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, ormetoprim
beta lactams inhibit cell wall synth how?inhibit transpeptidase enzyme
which of the beta-lactams is more resistant to beta-lactamase hydrolyzers, and what special baddie can this drug work against?carbapenam, and resistant pesudomonas (In a car I used a PSEUDO pen, because it's more RESISTANT to bumping around)
Penicillins cause allergies. Which is the penicillin (and group of penicillins) which you can give to penicilin-allergic pts?MONOBACTAM, a beta-lactam (low immunogenicity) (MONO is the ONE i can take)
What group does erythromycin belong in? what things is good for? what must you also use?macrolides (Which is a 50s subunit inhibitor), and its good for CAMPYLOBACTER and also RHODOCOCCUS EQUI (when combined with rifampin)
ACETYLATION is metabolism of what group?sulfonamides-->which is why there's crystals, remember?
GLUCORONIDATION is metabolism of which drug group?chloramphenicol (hence, tox in cats AND dose-dependent bone marrow suppression)
which two drugs are affected by cations?tetracyclines (chelate) and fluoroquinolones (FLO has FOUR(tera) CATions)
which group would you never give orally, and why?aminoglycosides bc highly polar in nature and cationic (trust me, you dont want amy near your mouth)
which abx stay in the extracellular space?penicillin(incld cephalosporins), aminoglycosides (Ami stuck a pen in my EC space)
lipid soluable and preferred for brain infections like meningitis?chloramphenicol (gets into your mitochondria, so can get in just about anywhere)
Bacteristatic?All of the protein ones EXCEPT aminoglycosides, and add folic acids (so, tetracycles, macrolides, lincosamides, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines)
which drug is really good to give to renal pts, and why?DOXYCYCLINE, because it is excreted in the FECES instead of through the kidney (doxys poop and look like poop)
which semisynthetic penicillins are resistant to penicillinases?oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin
what are the betalactamase inhibitors?sulbactam and clavulonic acid
which abx is a prodrug, and what benifit does being a prodrug have?AMPICILLIN (AMP is the prodrug for caffeine buzz), and prodrugs are good bc they inc oral bioavail (ampicillin is a beta-lactamase sensitive beta lactam, so is amoxicillin. So AMP which i drink a lot, and amoxi which i def cant have)
Anti-­Pseudomonal is which group of penicillins? and what are the drugs in this category?extended spectrum**Ticarcillin is the big one. But they are: Azlo Been Pipping Me Ticks - Azlocillin - Carbenicillin - Piperacillin - Mezlocillin - Ticarcillin
Carbapenems belong to which category? which two drugs are in this subset and what are they good for?in betalactam category. IMIPENAM and MEROPENAM are more stable against lacatamase hydrolysis and good against pseudomoals
chloramphenicol is related to what two other drugs?florfenicol(more resistant bc of Fl- group) and thiamphenicol
what is the aminoglycoside spectrum like? why is it this way?only AEROBIC (amy needs to breathe) bc need aerobic mechanism to get into cytosol
which aminoglycoside has a BROAD spectrum and also can kill pseudomonas?PARAMOMYSIN (AROUND(para)MOM I can kill PSEUDObact--she wouldnt approve of real killing!)
which aminoglycoside has the BROADEST spectrum? (how can you tell if it's an aminoglycoside?)Amikacin (a case full of amis is a lot of broads-- not to mention its AMInoglyco and AMIkacin so two amis cover more distance, even tho aminoglycosides in general have a narrow spectrum) (all Aminos have MYSIN (amy is my sin-ful sister) EXCEPT AMIKACIN, because AMKACIN is the broad spectrum exception)
which abx will owners like, since you only need to give it once a day? (and why is this? How do you admin?)AMINOGLYCOSIDES! This is bc the drug is CONC dependent drug, which irreversibly binds so also has PAE (but is not type three bc thats time and PAE) **PARENTAREL, NOT ORAL!! (I can only handle AMY ONCE A DAY. you dont wanna kiss ami on the mouth either)
why do aminoglycosides kill your ears and kidneys?bc there are anionic membranes there which it is attracted to (ami likes to conc on the neg things in life)
what is the only protein inhibitor which is cidal instead of static?aminoglycosides
are tetracyclines broad or narrow?BROAD (tetra means 4, so goes 4 times as far)
PAE is?post antibiotic effect is with type three killing--> the drug keeps working for a while
what is unique about the killing kinetics of aminoglycosides?They are a type 1 (conc dependent) but HAVE PAE (post antibiotic effect) because they IRREVERSIBLY BIND
what is type 1 killing?conc dependent (one concentrated a lot)
what is type 2 killing?time dependent (two has a timeless personality)
what is type three killing?time dependent killing + PAE (post antibiotic effect)
what are 5 main side effects of tetracyclines?tooth mottling, affects growth in young animals, if admin by IV, chelates Ca and might cause animal to colapse, arrhythmias in horses, tetras will promote photosensitivity!
NEVER IN FOOD ANIMALSvancomycin, nitrofurans-metronidazole, chloramphenicol ((vans and metros will hit cows, and you shouldnt eat those cows, nor should you eat them if theyre covered in chlorine)
why cant you use chloramphenicol in food animals?bc there is a paranitro group which will cause aplastic anemia in ppl (effects stem cells and production of blood cells)
what is the spectrum of chloramp like? what are its kinetics like?BROAD spectrum, and highly lipid soluable, so can get into areas like the CNS, eye, ear, visceral organs, etc (which is why it can get into the mitocondria too--> broad enough to get into all these places, BC lipid soluable)
what should you not give concurrently with chloramphenicols, and why?no macrolides or lincosamides! bc they all work on the 50s subunit (compete=less effective)
which type of chloramphenicol CAN be given to food animals?florfenicol, bc it doesnt have the paranitro group
which type of chloramphenicol is most resistant to bacterial resistance mechanisms, and why?florfenicol, bc of Fl- group
which drugs prevent translocation of tRNA which inhibits protein synth?macrolides and lincosamides (MAC tried to date a LINxy TRANny )
hypersensitivity reaction group?penicillins
which tetracycline is good for horses, but what must you def know about this?oxytetracycline good for Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomic Horse Fever) BUT!!! DO NOT GIVE ORALY (do IV)
which cephalosporins are good against ANAEROBIC infections? what unique feature do they have? specificlly what microorganism are they good at killing?Cefotetan and Cefoxitin!! cepham nucleus. good for bacterioides fragilis (The teen TETAN named FOX was good at killing FRAGILE BACTERIA'S NUCLEUSES)
which cephalosporins are good for tx mastitis?cephapirin, and cefalonium (Jimmy FALon wants to PI you in the tits)
what cephalosporin is parental and good for G-cefalozin (Jimmy FALON doesnt want you all up in his mouth, thats NEGATIVE to him)
cephalexin is good for what admin?oral admin (ex in your mouth....ew)
cefovicin unique feature?is good bc really long half life (skin injection)
ceftiofur is really good for what?broader spectrum, G+, anaerobies..HAS ACTIVE METABOLITE.(1) resp infections in cattle and pigs (2) UTIs in dogs (3) Pleuritis in horses (4) e coli in poultry (fur covers a lot of stuff)
cephalosporin which is 4th gen, with broadest spectrum?cefepime (pime trees need the most generations to get mature and broad around the base)
campylobacter is tx by?erythromycin (a macrolide. remember that I'm CAMPING with an ERYTHROCYTE and MAC)
chlamydia in birds is tx with?doxycycline (doxie and a bird playing together)
which macrolide do you never give IV?tilmicosin CARDIOTOX (Mac annoys you till Till your heart stops)
tox of lincosamides?possible enterocolitis--> DONT USE IN HIND GUT FERMENTORS (link is a hind gut fermentor and lincs will kill link) (just imagine link with profuse diarrhea)
tetracyclines have which type killing?type 3 TIME+PAE (two is time and shes bffs with three) (Tetra=4=4 times more powerful bc has two things bc type three)
oxytetracycline is for what?ehrlichia in horses (youd think it was oxen, but no, horses with ehrlichia...which you think would be dogs. Sigh.)
why no oral tetra for horses?dysbiosis--> kills their flora
are mino and doxy more or less potent than tetra, and why?MORE, bc more lipid soluable

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