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Pharm Elective O-Z

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dawale's version from 2017-08-03 22:38

Section

Question Answer
octreotideEndocrine: Pituitary: Growth Hormone antagonist. Acromegaly.
olopatadine-ophthalmicAnti-histamine. Used for ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis
SE: cold, pharyngitis; blurred vision, burning or stinging, conjunctivitis, dry eye, foreign body sensation, hyperemia, hypersensitivity, keratitis, lid edema, pain and ocular pruritus
Pregnancy category C
oxybutyninUrinary anti-spasmodic. Labeled uses: bladder instability (urgency, frequency, urinary leakage, urge incontinence, dysuria)
SE: constipation, diarrhea, nausea, dry mouth, pruritus, urinary retention
CI: narrow-angle glaucoma, gastric/urinary retention
Pregnancy category B
paroxetineSSRI. Paxil.
pentoxifyllineXanthine derivative. Peripheral Vascular dz, intermitten claudication cerebrovascualr dos. reduces viscosity. "Phyllin your arteries with blood, not plaque" ciproflaxacin can increase AEs: N/V, dizziness, HA flushig, agitation, sleep disturbances, thrombocytopenia, intrahepetic cholestasis.
pilocarpineGlaucoma. Parasympathomimetic. Labeled uses: dry mouth from Sjogren’s or chemotherapy (salivary gland hypofunction caused by radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck); glaucoma, ocular hypertension
SE: asthenia, dizziness, nausea, urinary frequency, headache, rhinitis, chills, diaphoresis, flushing, diarrhea, lacrimation, vomiting
CI: uncontrolled asthma, angle closure glaucoma
Pregnancy category C
prednisolone
procaine
promethazine1st generaton anti histamine.
quetiapineMoA unknown
Used for schizophrenia, mania, irritability in autism (risperidone); schizophrenia, mania (quetiapine); schizophrenia, mania/mixed episodes in bipolar I, adjunct for MDD, Tourette’s, irritability in autism (aripiprazole)
SE: anticholinergic symptoms, sedation, weight gain; mild extrapyramidal symptoms, QT prolongation; tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome; dyslipidemia, dysglycemia; compulsive urges (aripiprazole); increased suicide risk
WARNING: increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis
Pregnancy category C
ramiprilACEI
rifaximinantibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. develop resistance if used in the past
rivaroxabanAnti-coagulant. Factor Xa inactivator.
scopolamineAnti-emetic (anti-cholinergic). Labeled uses: nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness, post-surgery
SE: drowsiness and xerostomia
CI: angle closure glaucoma
Pregnancy category C
simvastatinHMG CoA reductase inhibitor
solifenacinAnti-cholinergic urinary anti-spasmodic.
Labeled uses: bladder instability (urgency, frequency, urinary leakage, urge incontinence, dysuria)
SE: constipation, diarrhea, nausea, dry mouth, pruritus, urinary retention
CI: narrow-angle glaucoma, gastric/urinary retention
Pregnancy category C (oxybutynin is category B)
somatropinEndocrine: Pituitary: Growth hormone agonist. For Dwarfism.
sulfacetamideTopical ocular anti-bacterial. Bacteriostatic sulfonamide
Uses: conjunctivitis and other superficial ocular infections
Pregnancy category C
Also used topically (different formulation) for acne and seborrheic dermatitis
tacrolimusImmune suppressant: organ transplantation.
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Question Answer
thalidomideImmunomodulatory and antiangiogenic characteristics; immunologic effects may vary based on conditions
Uses: leprosy; multiple myeloma (in conjunction with dexamethasone)
Pregnancy category X (next slide!)
timololBeta blocker. MoA not clearly established at this time.
Labeled uses: elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma
CI: bronchial asthma, COPD, sinus bradycardia, 2nd/3rd degree AV block, overt cardiac failure
Warning: systemic absorption (SE same as with oral beta-blockers)
Pregnancy category C
tiotropiumAnti-cholinergic bronchodilator and inhaler for bronchitis and emphysema. Not for acute use. Asthma. Related to atropine. AE: Dry mouth, metallic taste, urinary retention, constipation, palpitation, allergy
tizanidineMuscle relaxant. Use: Spasticity. Avoid abrupt withdrawal – not recommended for pregnancy; Xerostomia, somnolence, asthenia, dizziness, hypotension, bradycardia, UTI, infection, constipation, ALT, AST elevated, V, speech disturbance, urinary freq, blurred vision, flu syndrome, hallucinations, spasiticy/tone increase
topiramateEpilepsy and Migraines.
MoA unknown
Uses: epilepsy, migraines
SE: Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle Closure; Visual Field Defects; Oligohidrosis and Hyperthermia; Metabolic Acidosis; Suicidal Behavior and Ideation; Cognitive/Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions; Fetal Toxicity; Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP); Hyperammonemia and Encephalopathy (Without and With Concomitant Valproic Acid [VPA] Use; Kidney Stones; Hypothermia with Concomitant Valproic Acid (VPA) Use; Paresthesia
Pregnancy category D
tramadol, Ultam (NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor) MoA not understood), μ-opioid receptors, All are class II controlled substances except codeine when used in combination, loperamide (otc antidiarrheal—acts on myenteric plexus of colon, rather than CNS), and dextromethorphan.
Used for moderate to severe pain
Available IV, PO, patch
tretinoinAcne. (retinoid)
triamterenepotassium sparing diuretic on distal tubules. hyperkalemia, N/V, diarrhea, may turn urine blue
ursodeoxycholic acidCholelithiasis. Gallstone solubilizing agent: Ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursodiol), Actigall
Labeled uses: primary biliary cirrhosis
SE: back pain, arthralgia, alopecia, arthritis, pharyngitis
CI: biliary obstruction
Pregnancy category B
valproate (divalproex)Anti-seizure. Black Box warning for hepatotoxicity. Do not use in those with LV dz or in children.
vancomycinAbx. Glycopeptide.
verapamilCalcium channel blocker; Angina htn Const, hypotension, dizzy, edema, N, CHF; Increased levels w Ceimetidine
vitamin K1Constipation, hypotension, dizziness, edema, nausea, CHF
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