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Pharm Block 3

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ptheodore's version from 2016-11-11 01:45

CORTICOSTEROIDS

 

Question Answer
Hypothalamic Pituitary adrenal Axis can be suppressed bySteroids
Increases renal Na+ reabsorption and water retention results in EdemaMineralocorticoids
Causes redistribution of body fatGlucocorticoids
Increases K+ and H+ excretion in urineMineralocorticoids
Decreases capillary permeabilityGlucocorticoid
Induces lipocortins (Annexin-A1) through which they inhibit the PL-A2 and inhibit PGs synthesisCorticosteroids
It Has equal glucocorticoid and minarlocorticoid activity and it is short actingHydrocortisone
It has Mainly Glucocorticoid activity and immediate actingPrednisolone
They only have Glucocorticoid activity and long actingBetamethasone, Dexamethasone
ACTH preparationCosyntropin
It is a name for cortisol when it is used as a medicationHydrocortisone
It is used to treat people who lacks adequate naturally generated cortisolHydrocortisone
Used to prevent respiratory distress in new born especially in premature labor (before 34th week)Betamethasone
Which antagonist of glucocorticoids is safe to use in pregnant women?Metyrapone
Which antagonist of mineralocorticoids use to treat primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)?Spironolactone
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ANTIDIABETICS

 

Question Answer
The only insulin that can be administered IVRegular Insulin
What are the Ultra-rapid onset and very short acting insulinLispro, Aspart & Glulisine
Which type of insulin Used to control postprandial hyperglycemiaLispro & Aspart
Which type of insulin suitable for injection just before mealLispro
Which type of insulins are hexametric in nature and take long time to peak actionRegular insulin
Which of the following insulin preparation will take best care of the postprandial hypergylcemiaLispro, Aspart & Glulisine
Which of the following insulin preparation will not cause late postmeal hypoglycemiaLispro
Which type of insulin characterized by clear before cloudyIsophane
Designed to provide a constant (peak less) basal insulin supply throughout the dayGlargine Insulin
Which drug produce a peak less in insulin therapeutic?Glargine & Detemir
Sweating, anxiety, palpitation, tremor dizziness, headache, behavioral changes, visual disturbances, fatigue and weakness. Mental confusion, seizures and coma occur in severehypoglycemia
Contraindicated in diabetic patients because it can mask diabetic symptomsBeta adrenergic blockers
Which type of insulin exist in monomer formLispro (Lys-Pro at 28/29)
Name 2 first generation sulfonylureas drugsChlorpropamide & Tolbutamide
Name 2 second generation Sulfonylureas drugsGlipizide and Glimepiride
What type of cells do sufonylureas drugs required to carry out their functions?Beta cells
Which drug block the ATP sensitive K+ receptor to increase intracellular calcium leads to increased fusion of insulin granulae with the cell membrane, and therefore increased secretion of insulinSulfonylureas
Hypoglycemia, allergic reactions and wait gain are the adverse effect ofSulfonylureas
Induce hypoglycemia by inhibiting sulfonylureas metabolism or by displacing from plasma protein binding Warfarin, phenylbutazone & sulfonamides
Therapy for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in bipolar disorder patientAmiloride
Therapy of non-lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insupidusThiazides diuretic & Chloropropamide
Long acting and most potent among other sulfonylureas. Not safe in elderlyGlimepiride
Shortest acting, less potent. Relatively less incidences of hypoglycemia – safe in elderly patientsGlipizide
Prolong hypoglycemia ,so not good for Elderly patients, Ant-abuse (disulfiram) like reaction & Used to treat nephrogenic Diabetes InsipidusChlorpropamide
Drugs DOC in sulfa allergic patientsRepaglinide & Nateglinide
Drugs best use to control post-prandial hyperglycemia in type 2 DMRepaglinide & Nateglinide
It is the first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes, doesn't produce hypoglycemia nor wait gainMetformin
Drug which decrease hepatic gluconeogenesisMetformin
Lactic acidosis is one the most common side effect ofMetformin
Benefits of using metformin to treat type II DMPromotes mild weight loss & doesn't cause hypoglycemia
DOC especially in obese type -2 DM patientsMetformin
Which drug causes metallic taste & lactic acidosis?Metformin
Which anti diabetic drug should not be give in liver dysfunction, CHF, alcoholism & sepsisMetformin
Increase the target tissue sensitivity to insulin & reduce Insulin resistancePioglitazone & Rosiglitazone
Which drugs bind to Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma, (PPARG), which regulates the transcription of several insulin responsive “genes” Pioglitazone & Rosiglitazone
PPAR-gamma activation decreases insulin resistance is byincreased expression of the adiponectin gene
What are the main adverse effects of Pioglitazone & Rosiglitazone?Hepatotoxicity, fluid retention, CCF
Pioglitazone & Rosiglitazone should be avoid in which patient?CCF patients
Which drugs inhibit the conversion of complex carbohydrates into simple (oral sugar) and causing flatulence?Acarbose & Miglitol
Most suitable in patients with predominantly postprandial hyperglycemiaalpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Intracellular nuclear receptorPioglitazone & Rosiglitazone
Surface membrane-bound enzymeAcarbose & Miglitol
Intracellular microsomal enzymeMetformin
Membrane ion channelSulfonylureas
Surface tyrosine kinase-coupled receptorInsulin
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