Pharm Block 2-Last Minute Review

ptheodore's version from 2015-11-02 11:36



Question Answer
Renal toxicity: papillary necrosis and tubulo-interstitial inflammation of the kidneyNSAID Side Effect
Rx for Aspirin induced asthmaZileuton: 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor
The most common cause of death in aspirin overdosepulmonary edema
NSAID Best used in mild to moderate post operative painKetorolac
Inhibits COX better in non inflammatory areaAcetaminophen
Acetaminophen toxicityhepatic cell necrosis
Rx; give more glutathione in the form of N-acetyl cysteineAcetaminophen poisoining


Question Answer
Seen with short acting drugs like albuterolTolerance (tachyphelaxis)
They increase cGMP. They block muscarinic receptor. increase the mucociliary clearanceIpratropium & Tiotropium
Use in asthma; Inhibition Phosphodiesterase (PDE4)- ↑ cAMPMethyl Xanthines - Theophylline
Asthma drug. Narrow therapeutic margin. Eliminated by CYP 450 drug metabolizing enzymes in liverTheophylline
Rx useful in nocturnal asthmatheophylline
High topical and low systemic activity steroidsBeclomethasone, Budesonide, Fluticasone, Triamcinolone
Rx for severe chronic asthma- recurrencesPrednisolone oral
Rx for status asthmaticusHydrocortisone i.v
Rx for Aspirin induced asthmaZileuton: 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor
stabilizing the mast cell from degranulation and inhibiting the further release of inflammatory mediators from the mast cellSodium cromoglicate & Nedocromil Sodium
Anti IgE antibody. Humanized monoclonal antibody to human IgEOmalizumab


Question Answer
Irreversible of enzymes, suicide inhibition of H+/K+-ATPase (the proton pump) and thus blocks the final common pathway of acid secretionPPI's
Short half life (30 m) but long duration of action.PPI's
All drugs are given twice daily for 14 days and PPIs are continued for an additional 4-6 weeksAnti H-Pylori drugs
Agents that would be CONTRAINDICATED in bowel obstruction (they can cause the obstruct bowel to burst)Prokinetic
Increase GI motility after surgeryBethanachol (Muscarinic agonist)
Anticholinestrase that increase GI motility, by inhibit ACh degradationNeostigmine
Blocks inhibitory D2 receptor. Dopamine D2 blockers. Does not cross blood brain barrier. Effective against vomiting and nauseaDomperidome
Blocks inhibitory D2 receptor. Dopamine D2 blockers. Crosses blood brain barrier. Effective against vomiting and nauseaMetoclopramide
D2 antagonists used in treating vomiting due to blood borne emeticsMetaclopramide & Domperidone
Serotonergic agonist, activates excitatory 5-HT4 receptors. Promote upper G.I.T MotilityCisapride, Mosapride
Causes ventricular arrhythmia by torsades de pointes (when combined with CYP450 inhibitors-ketoconazole, macrolides etc)Cisapride
Macrolide antibiotic & acts as a motilin agonist. Activate neural & smooth muscle motilin receptor. Promote upper G.I.T MotilityErythromycin
Relieves motion sicknessScopalamine
Acts on M and H1 receptors to reduce vomitingScopalamine
Used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapyOndansetron
Works on Serotonin 5-HT3 receptors to fight vomitingOndansetron
Blocks vomiting due to psychaitaric disorders, stress, anxietyBenzodiazapines, Dronobinol, Phenothiazines (Prochloroperazine and promethazine)
Reduces vomiting by blocking M and D2 receptors. Because they also blocks H1, causes sedation.Phenothiazines: Prochloroperazine and promethazine
Used to treat Inflammatory bowel diseases5-aminosalicylates (Sulfasalazine and Mesalamine)
First line drugs in mild or moderate ulcerative colitis and also in Crohn’s disease. Inhibition of PGs and leukotriene biosynthesis5-aminosalicylates (Sulfasalazine and Mesalamine)
Used only to induce vomiting in case of any poisoningApomorphine (Emetic)
Acts on the CTZ to stimulate the opioid receptorsApomorphine (Emetic)


Question Answer
Prevents platelet aggregation by inhibiting phosphodiesteraseDipyridamole
Rx for Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)hirudin, Lepuridin, bivalirudin, Argatroban
Methotrexate toxicity inhibitsDihyrofolate reductase
Causes folate trapMethotrexate toxicity inhibits


Question Answer
Rx for Carcinoid tumour is the neoplasm that secretes serotonin. C/F: diarrhoea, flushing (vasodilatation) & bronchoconstrictionOcteorite
Ergot for Obstetric bleeding- post partum haemorrhage (stimulate uterine contraction)Ergonovine


Question Answer
Rx for Status epilipticusDiazepam
Muscle relaxantDiazepam
Rx for trigeminal neuralgiaCarbamazepine
ketamineNMDA receptor antagonism

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