PHARM Abebe Adverse Drug Reaction

rpopple's version from 2016-08-24 20:10

Section 1

Question Answer
what percent are admitted to hospital due to adverse drug 5-10 percent
what percent of people are admitted to hospital due to drug toxicity30 Percent
how are side effects different than toxicityside effects act on non-target organs
how is allergic reactions different from toxicity and side effectdallergic reaction is NOT DOSAge dependant and is not predictable
atropine causing GIT effect and xerostomia is an example of what type of adverse effect side effect
what type of adverse effect " aspirin as analgesic causing GI irritation side effect
can side effects be useful>>>?yes
can making drug combinations reduce the side effects of the individual drugyes
are idiosyncractic reactions predictable? what causes it ?no they are not. they are genetically determined abnormal responses
hemolytic anemia from antimalaria drugs is an example of what adverse effectidiosyncractic reaction
what percentage accounts for untoward reactions from drug allergy10 percent
can you get a drug allergy from the first exposure?no,, you have to have a prior exposure
drugs differ in their antigen potential. are they antigenic in their free state?NOOOO
is insulin antigenic in its free stateyes. this is an exception to the rule
can penicillin be dangerous ?yes, it can randomly convertion to a highly reactive derivative
what is caused by mediators of allergypseudoallergic
what is a carcinogenesisany agent that is capable to altering the DNA
examples of carcinogenesisAAN--- aromatic amines, alkalating agents, nitroamines
what does cyp450 do?it is highly reactive that reacts with DNA and forms covalent bonds
what enzyme is involved in tumor formation?tyrosine kinase
what are DDT and phenobarbital involved intumor promotors
what are phorbol esters and saccharin involved intumor promotors
what area is teratogenicity of drugs used for drug and prego

Section 2

Question Answer
how can new drugs be discoveredfrom folk meds of plants, by empiracal screening or accident, by synthetic chemestry
what organization created how a drug is evaluated?by the FDA
during the preclincal testing of a drug, what does that involve1 to 3 years of in vitro studies and on animals.
during the 2 to 10 year clinical trials, what are the 3 phases- who and why1- who volunteers and special population. why- safety, biological effects, drug interaction. 2- why theraputic and dosage range who- selected patients 3- who- large population of selected pts why- safety and efficiency.
phase 2 of clinical trials is done by who?clincal pharm and pharm investigators.
before and after the clinical testing, what organizations review itbefore is the FDA. then after is the NDA
what does the NDA do?they will review the clincal testing and approve or deny the drug
what happens after the approval of the NDAphase 4 is postmarketing survalience where adverse effects are documented or any additional discoveries occur
what is the DRC curveit is found on animals to find the potency and efficacy of drug
what is the quantal dose-effect relationship for safety of compound
what is the purpose of preclincal trials to find the DRC curve, potency, efficacy, Quantal dose-effect relationship, LD50 and ED50 so THERAPEUTIC INDEX
is TI theraputic index good a measuring the toxicity and variability?no it is not. It is a good tool to measure drug safety.
when testing drug on animals, what should the test- testcarcinogenicity, teratogenicity PK studies , acute, subacute, chronic in different species by several routes of drug
how long is the FDA new drug approval take? how often does a drug succeedtakes around 10 years and 1/20 will be successful and over 100 million dollars
how long is the drug patent usually 17 to 20 years
USAN name is means what generic name - nonpropitiatory name
is trade name propitiatory or nonpropitiatoryyes it is

Section 3

Question Answer
what is toxicologythe study of poisonous substance, their effect and their antidote.
is toxicology limited to medicine and drugs?no, it is for the safe use of chemicals in everything.
do all animals in clincal tests react the same for toxicity?no they do not and caught should be noted. AND NOT EVEN FOR WITHIN A SPECIES. an individual might react differently due to age, sex diet, body weight etc.
who is affected with hemolytic anemiaAfrican and middle easterns with the defect of G6 P dehydrogenase in red blood cell
can acetaminophen cause toxicity?yes increased hepatic reactive meabolites in the presence of phenobarbitals - inducing p450
what is the difference between acute and chronic toxicityacute will happen from one exposure like alcohol intoxication. Chronic takes a lot longer and with multiple exposures, like liver cirrhosis by ethanol.
chemical trauma of the pulp from repeated restorations is an example of acute or chronic toxicity? " chronic
Question Answer
when the same chemical causes both acute and chronic toxicity, are the results the same? like with organophosphateNo they are not related. acute exposure causes cholinomimetric effects while low exposure over a long period of time will cause neuronal degeneration. these are completely different
is dioxin from herbicides a safe substance?no, it is teratogenic - causes birth effects.
which toxic will be more likely to cause a systemic effect rather than local- lipid or water soluable?lipid
how are drug toxins taken care of in the bodythe liver will metabolize the toxin and then the kidney will excrete it and also become bile.
can metabolite toxins reach a baby or placenta?yes it can reach any tissue and also excreted in milk which can affect the infant
is the CNS sensitive to toxins?yes very much so bc of its high metabolic rate of tissue and it does not rely on anaerobic glycolysis.
chemicals that affect pulmonary ventilation or cerebral circulation can also affect what?irreversible damage to neurons
what chemical can affect the BBB and get into the CNSmercury
can toxins affect small sensory nerve fibers and motor pathways? what resultssensory damage can cause paresthesia. motor damage causes tremor and ataxia
what drugs can enter the BBB even when it is intact?lipid soluble chemicals