Pharm 3 Review

nicoledemott's version from 2017-12-07 23:08

Section 1

Question Answer
How TB differs from bacteria slow growing & can lay dormant
What is the 4 drug combo therapy for Tuberculosis Rifampin, Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol
Vaccine for TBBCG
Definitive Dx for TBsputum antigen panel
Rare toxic side effect of INHEncephalopathy
ADRs of INHperipheral neuritis d/t vitamin B6 deficiency
ADRs of RifampinHarmless red, reddish brown or orange color to urine, sweat, tears, saliva, and onto contacts, it is also a Cytochrome P450 Inducer
ADR of PyrazinamideHepatooxicity (main), hyperuricemia, N/V, fever
ADRs of Ethambutolloss of central vision + color discrimination = dose retrobulbar neuritis
Second line treatment used for TB (aminoglycoside)Streptomycin
ADRs of streptomycin Nephrotoxic & Ototoxic (monitor peaks and troughs)
How does resistance occur with TB drugspatient not taking medication as indicated
ADRs of Cycloserine CNS somnolence
ADRs of EthionamideHepatic impariments

Section 2

Question Answer
Patient has been treated for CMV with gancyclovir with no success, what should they be prescribed?Foscarnet
ADRs of FoscarnetRenal Toxicity (prevent with IV hydration)
Drugs used for Varicella (chicken pox)Acyclovir, vancylovir, and docyclovir
Flu vaccine H. influenza
Medications to decrease symptoms/severity of Influenza A and B Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and Zanamivir (Relenza)
Zostzvax- Shingles Vaccine benefitsdecreases post hepatic neuralgia pain, reduces liklihood of getting shingles, even if they do get shingles, symptoms will be less severe
most common type of antiretroviral failurevirologic
What class of drugs is most likely to cause Lipoatrophy NRTIs (Zidovidine, Didanosine, Stavidine, Lamicudine, Abacavir, Emitricitabine, and neucletides)
What class of drugs is most likely to cause lipohypertrophy?Protease inhibitors (atazanivir, Darunavir, Fosamprenavir, Indinavir, Loinavir, Ritonavir, Nelfinavir, Saquinavir, and Tipranavir)
ADRs of NRTILipoatrophy
ADRs of Protease Inhibitors Lipohypertrophy
localized fat tissue, redistribution of fat seen in/around the faceLipoatrophy
abnormal accumulation of fat underneath the skin surface, redistribution of fatLipohypertrophy
What drug can be added to boost HIV treatmentRitonavir (Protease inhibitor)
What is ritonavir?by adding ritonavir to HIV theraphy you are enhancing effect of a drug without actually giving more and hence less ADRs
What class of HIV drugs must you use caution with diabeticsProtease inhibitors d/t insulin resistance
Treatment to prevent post natal HIV transmissionZidovudine
Which strain(s) of HIV do our drugs targetHIV -1 and HIV-2
Combination therpies for HIVHAART (at least 3 drugs- NNRTI or PI or Integrase Inhibitor + 2 NRTIs)
What drug can not be use in pregnancyEfavirenz
Patient gets HLAB5701 tested, and is HIV + what drug can they not getAbacavir -NRTI
ADR of Abacavir (NRTI)black box warning fatal hypersensitivity reaction
Which class of HIV drugs covers HIV-1 only NNRTIs
Which class of HIV drugs covers HIV-1 and HIV-2 NRTIs
ADRs of NNRTIsHepatotoxicity
ADRs of NRTIs Lactic acidosis

Section 3

Question Answer
Topical Drug used to treat a fungal infectionNystatin
Treatment for oral thrush nystatin suspension
treatment of a vaginal yeast infectionfluconazole (diflucan) PO 1 dose- can be repeated a week later
Peferred antifungal injection amphotericin + lipid (Fungisone) - less toxic and safe with less ADRs
benefit of echinocandin as compared to amphotericinless ADRs
Antifungal drug used for nailsTerbinafine
What must you warn your patients of when taking terbinafineDO NOT DRINK ALCOHOL
Which antifungal shampoo can help with hair growth ketoconazole
ADRs of Ketoconazole Gynecomastia
What is the concern of giving an -azole to a person taking warfarinbleeding - azole inhibits metabolism of warfarin

Section 4

Question Answer
Drug used to prevent patient from getting an ulcer from long term NSAID usemisoprostol (category X)
class of drug to inhibit acid secretionPPI
Class of drug which reduces gastric pepsinogenH2 blockers (cimetidine)
ADRs of taking tums for dyspepsiastomach distension d/t CO2 (gas)
How to treat gas buildupSimethicone
ADR of Aluminum Hydroxide constipation
ADR of magnesium laxative
Best way to treat travelers diarrhea if pt. does not have fluoroquinolones (-azoles)Bismuth Subsalicylate
ADRs of Bismuth Subsalicylateblack stool and tonge
Class of antiemetics to treat chemotherapy induced N/VDronabinol
Class of antiemetics to prevent chemotherapy induced N/VOndansetron (5HT3S), Rolapitant, Aprepitant
Treatment of GERDPPIs, Anti- acids, and H2 blockers
medication injected into bleeding varicesOctreotide Inhibits mesenteric dilation
what does octreotide doInhibits mesenteric dilation of esophageal varices & HIV diarrhea
Monecol Antibody (MAB) used to treat crohns or colitisInfliximab, Adalimumab, and Certolizumab
Patient with Crohns or Ulcerative colitis and steroidspts should not be on steroids longer than 2 weeks, shoud be breif as possible and switch to immunosuppressant when possible
Treatment for H. pyloriPrevpac PO triple therapy for 14 days - PPI and course of 2 antibiotics (clarythromycin and amoxicillin)- success of 80-90%

Section 5

Question Answer
CTZ5-HT3, D2, M1
Solitary Tract Nucleus 5-HT3, D2, M1, H1
Vestibular ApparatusM1 and H1
Stomach5-HT3 and M1