Pharm 2 - Final 1

drraythe's version from 2015-11-10 19:51



Question Answer
MOA – inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites)Sulfonamides, Diaminopyrimidines
Sulfonamides MOA? Spectrum?Inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites). BROAD spectrum (all bact need folic acid!)
Diaminopyrimidines MOA?Inhibit folic acid synthesis (PABA metabolites)
Sulfonamides- static or cidal?Static (Sulfa Stop)
Diaminopyrimidines- static or cidal?Static (You'd think DIe would be cidal, but it's like sulfa, so it's STOP)
What is the effect of combining Sulfonamides & Diaminopyrimidines?Static+static = cidal (SYNERGISM) **UNUSUAL!
Static+static =Additive effect
Static+cidal =Antagonism
Cidal+cidal =Synergism (sum greater than its parts)
If you are combining Trimethoprim & Sulfadiazine, what is the ratio?Trimeth + sulfa = 5 parts sulfa + 1 part trimeth (S looks like a 5)
Sulfasalazine for what?Colitis in dogs
*What are Sulfonamides good for Tx?Potent for g+ & g-, & incld Coccidia (sulfur will burn big(+) & small(-) cocks)
Sulfaquinoxaline is used to Tx?Coccidiosis in chickens
Sulfaguanidine for?Rumi GI Guana GI
Sulfacetamide for ___ preparation?Eye ointments (neutral pH)
Silver Sulfadiazine for _________ admin?Topical
Mafenide is a ___ for ____ admin?Sulfa for topical admin
Statics are?Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol & derivatives, Macrolides, Lincomycin, Sulfonamides, Diaminopyrimidines (Mac Lin the pool w/ Chlorine will leave behind 4 times more sulfur- makes me want to STOP going w/ him or die)
Pyrimethamine used for? What is it?Diamino, protozoan (PYRI like a PYthon, squeezing protozoans to death)
Ormetoprim is a ____ used in ____?Diamino, Ruminants (or cows)
Immunological tox of sulfas?KCS, hepatic necrosis (sulfur burns your eyes & poisons your liver)
Non-immunological tox of sulfas? How can you resolve this?NEPHROTOX DUE TO CRYSTAL FORMATION (bc drug acetylated). Try to alkalize urine to reduce this effect
Unique SFx of sulfas in dogsIatrogenic hypothyroidism
How do β-lactams work?Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to PBPs (Penicillin Binding Proteins) & stopping transpeptidase
How can bact be resistant to β-lactams?Make β-lactamase, ↓ permeability to antimicrobial, ↓ sensitivity of PBP (Penicillin binding protein) to antimicrobial
Penicillins belong to what group? β-lactams
Cephalosporins belong to what group? β-lactams
Cephamycins belong to what group? β-lactams
Carbapenems belong to what group? β-lactams
Monobactams belong to what group?β-lactams
Penicillin G belongs to which Penicillin group, & what is the admin?Natural, parenteral
How can you prolong the life of Penicillin G drugs?Add to oil
NEVER IV Penicillins areBenzathine, Procaine (BEN put PROpANE in his VEINS & died)
Which Penicillin group can you give orally, & what kinda Penicillin is this group?Penicillin V, naturals
Cloxacillin is for?Eye (I'll clox you in the eye)
What are the semi-synthetic Penicillins? Are they resistant?Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Methicillin, Naficillin
(cloned(cloned is semisynth) oxen dye me (resistant) navy) (yes resistant)
What is the spectrum for Aminoglycosides?NARROW → Aerobic G-s (amy is narrow minded & negative, but is somehow still breathing)
Drug for Txing Toxoplasma gondii?CLINDAMYCIN!
Which drug group requires Glucoronidation, so is at higher risk for tox in cats?Chloramphenicols
This drug should never be given w/ dairy products or antacids? What other SFx is related to this?TETRACYCLINE bc it chelates calcium (so will also mess up your teeth) (this is same fr Fluoroquinolones)
Which group of drugs cz arthroplasty?FLOROQUINOLONES! (bc it chelates w/ Mg) (FLO from the commercials stabbing you in the knee)
Aminoglycosides have which tox?Nephrotox, ototox, & NM blockade (Ami's kidneys are probably shot, as well as her hearing, & by the way she dances youd think she had a neuromuscular problem too)
Which ABx cz cardiac toxicity when given IV?Tilmicosin (a Macrolide) ( TIL my HEART stops)
Which ABx should you NEVER give to horses? Which group?TYLOSIN FATAL IN HORSES (TYLOSIN → Tyson horse meat factory means dead horses) (& mac likes killing horses)
Dobermans are sensitive to what ABx?Sulfas (Doberman w/ sulfur-y farts is BAD)
Cats are sensitive to what ABx? Why?Chloramphenicol (bc glucoronidate) (dont dip your cats in CHLORINE)
Explain Penicillin excretion, & how we can manipulate thisPenicillin stays mainly in EC space (so do Aminoglycosides), so, excreted unchanged via kidneys. Can use the drug Probenecid to compete for excretion at the tubules & prolong life of the Penicillin.
What are the 5 β-lactams?Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Cephamycins, Carbapenems, Monobactams (1 (mono) pen in the CAR engine will make a cepha-cepha sound)
What are the 30s protein groups? 50s?AT30, you will have 50 Mean Little Cats!! 30 = Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines. 50 = Macrolides, Lincosamides, Chloramphenicol
Work on DNA?Fluoroquinolones, Metronidazole (flo takes the metro to come find you)
Work on RNA?Rifampin (only 1 that starts w/ R, lol)
Works on cell membrane?Polymyxin B & Colistin (cell membranes are liquid, so you can MYX them up w/ even a COLIn)
Works on folic acid synth?Sulfonamides & Diaminopyrimidines (if instead of folic acid, you get sulfur, youd die too)
Which drugs work on the cell wall?β-lactams (Monobactams, Penicillin, Carbapenams, Cephalosporin, Cephamycins), Bacitracin, Vancomycin, Cycloserine. (CYCling on a WALL in VANcouver while holding a BETA in the bowl & then BACin' it up)
Which drug has dose-dependent bone marrow suppression & why?Chloramphenicol, bc it can permeate the mitochondria & inhibit mitochondrial protein synth in the host, which suppresses the bone marrow.
Which ABx is known for having resistance RAPIDLY developed against it?Rifampin (the RNA one) (rif is a ripoff if you dont use it right)
What are the Diaminopyrimidines?Pyrimethamine, Trimethoprim, Ormetoprim
β -inhibit cell wall synth how?Inhibit transpeptidase enzyme
Which of the β-lactams is more resistant to β-lactamase hydrolyzers & what special baddie can this drug work against?Carbapenem & resistant Pseudomonas (In a car I used a PSEUDO pen, bc it's more RESISTANT to bumping around)
Penicillins cz allergies. Which is the Penicillin (& group of Penicillins) which you can give to Penicillin-allergic pts?MONOBACTAM, a β-lactam (low immunogenicity) (MONO is the 1 i can take)
What group does Erythromycin belong in? What things is good for? What must you also use?Macrolides (Which is a 50s subunit inhibitor), & its good for CAMPYLOBACTER & also RHODOCOCCUS EQUI (when combined w/ Rifampin)
ACETYLATION is metabolism of what group?Sulfonamides → which is why there's crystals, remember?
GLUCORONIDATION is metabolism of which drug group?Chloramphenicol (hence, tox in cats & dose-dependent bone marrow suppression)
Which 2 drugs are affected by cations?Tetracyclines (chelate) & Fluoroquinolones (FLO has 4(tera) CATions)
Which group would you never give orally, & why?Aminoglycosides bc highly polar in nature & cationic (trust me, you dont want amy near your mouth)
Which ABx stay in the extracellular space?Penicillin (incld Cephalosporins), Aminoglycosides (Ami stuck a pen in my EC space)
Lipid soluble & preferred for brain infxns like meningitis?Chloramphenicol (gets into your mitochondria, so can get in just about anywhere)
Bacteriostatic?All of the protein ones EXCEPT Aminoglycosides, & add folic acids (so, Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Lincosamides, Chloramphenicol, Sulfonamides, Diaminopyrimidines)
Which drug is really good to give to renal pts, & why?DOXYCYCLINE, bc it is excreted in the FECES instead of through the kidney (doxys poop & look like poop)
Which Semisynthetic Penicillins are resistant to Penicillinases?Oxacillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin
What are the β-lactamase inhibitors?Sulbactam & Clavulanic Acid
Which ABx is a prodrug, & what benefit does being a prodrug have?AMPICILLIN (AMP is the prodrug for caffeine buzz), & prodrugs are good bc they ↑ oral bioavail (Ampicillin is a β-lactamase sensitive β-lactam, so is Amoxicillin. So AMP which i drink a lot, & amoxi which i def cant have)
Antipseudomonal is which group of Penicillins? What are the drugs in this category?Extended spectrum**Ticarcillin is the big 1. But they are: Azlo Been Pipping Me Ticks - Azlocillin - Carbenicillin - Piperacillin - Mezlocillin - Ticarcillin
Carbapenems belong to which category? Which 2 drugs are in this subset & what are they good for?In β-lactam category. IMIPENAM & MEROPENAM are more stable against lactamase hydrolysis & good against Pseudomonals
Chloramphenicol is related to what 2 other drugs?Florfenicol (more resistant bc of Fl- group) & Thiamphenicol
What is the Aminoglycoside spectrum like? Why is it this way?Only AEROBIC (amy needs to breathe) bc need aerobic mechanism to get into cytosol
Which Aminoglycoside has a BROAD spectrum & also can kill Pseudomonas?PARAMOMYSIN (AROUND(para)MOM I can kill PSEUDObact - she wouldnt approve of real killing!)
Which Aminoglycoside has the BROADEST spectrum? (How can you tell if it's an Aminoglycoside?)Amikacin (a case full of amis is a lot of broads - not to mention its AMInoglyco & Amikacin so 2 amis cover more distance, even tho Aminoglycosides in general have a narrow spectrum) (all Aminos have MYSIN (amy is my sin-ful sister) EXCEPT AMIKACIN, bc AMKACIN is the broad spectrum exception)
Which ABx will owners like, since you only need to give it once a day? (& why is this? How do you admin?)AMINOGLYCOSIDES! This is bc the drug is CONC dependent drug, which irreversibly binds so also has PAE (but is not type 3 bc thats time & PAE) **PARENTAREL, NOT ORAL!! (I can only handle AMY ONCE A DAY. you dont wanna kiss ami on the mouth either)
Why do Aminoglycosides kill your ears & kidneys?Bc there are anionic membranes there which it is attracted to (ami likes to conc on the neg things in life)
What is the only protein inhibitor which is cidal instead of static?Aminoglycosides
Are Tetracyclines broad or narrow?BROAD (tetra means 4, so goes 4 times as far)
PAE is?Post antibiotic effect is w/ type 3 killing → the drug keeps working for a while
What is unique about the killing kinetics of Aminoglycosides?They are a Type 1 (conc dependent) but HAVE PAE (post antibiotic effect) bc they IRREVERSIBLY BIND
What is Type 1 killing?Conc dependent (1 concentrated a lot)
What is Type 2 killing?Time dependent (2 has a timeless personality)
What is type 3 killing?Time dependent killing + PAE (post antibiotic effect)
What are 5 main SFx of Tetracyclines?Tooth mottling, affects growth in young animals, if admin by IV, chelates Ca & might cz animal to collapse, arrhythmias in horses, tetras will promote photosensitivity!
NEVER IN FOOD ANIMALSVancomycin, Nitrofurans-Metronidazole, Chloramphenicol ((vans & metros will hit cows, & you shouldnt eat those cows, nor should you eat them if theyre covered in chlorine)
Why cant you use Chloramphenicol in food animals?Bc there is a Paranitro group which will cz aplastic anemia in ppl (effects stem cells & production of blood cells)
What is the spectrum of Chloramp like? What are its kinetics like?BROAD spectrum, & highly lipid soluble, so can get into areas like the CNS, eye, ear, visceral organs, etc (which is why it can get into the mitochondria too → broad enough to get into all these places, BC lipid soluble)
What should you not give concurrently w/ Chloramphenicols, & why?No Macrolides or Lincosamides! bc they all work on the 50s subunit (compete = less effective)
Which type of Chloramphenicol CAN be given to food animals?Florfenicol, bc it doesnt have the Paranitro group
Which type of Chloramphenicol is most resistant to bacterial resistance mechanisms, & why?Florfenicol, bc of Fl- group
Which drugs prevent translocation of tRNA which inhibits protein synth?Macrolides & Lincosamides (MAC tried to date a LINxy TRANny)
Hypersensitivity rxn group?Penicillins
Which Tetracycline is good for horses, but what must you def know about this?Oxytetracycline good for Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac Horse Fever) BUT!!! DO NOT GIVE ORALY (do IV)
Which Cephalosporins are good against ANAEROBIC infxns? What unique feature do they have? Specifically what microorganism are they good at killing?Cefotetan & Cefoxitin!! Cepham nucleus. Good for Bacterioides fragilis (The teen TETAN named FOX was good at killing FRAGILE BACTERIA'S NUCLEUSES)
Which Cephalosporins are good for Tx mastitis?Cephapirin & Cefalonium (Jimmy FALon wants to PI you in the tits)
What Cephalosporin is parental & good for G-Cefalozin (Jimmy FALON doesnt want you all up in his mouth, thats NEGATIVE to him)
Cephalexin is good for what admin?Oral admin (ex in your mouth....ew)
Cefovicin unique feature?Is good bc really long half-life (skin injxn)
Ceftiofur is really good for what?Broader spectrum, G+, anaerobes. HAS ACTIVE METABOLITE.(1) Resp infxns in cattle & pigs
(2) UTIs in dogs
(3) Pleuritis in horses
(4) E-coli in poultry (fur covers a lot of stuff)
Cephalosporin which is 4th gen, w/ broadest spectrum?Cefepime (pime trees need the most generations to get mature & broad around the base)
Campylobacter is Tx by?Erythromycin (a Macrolide. remember that I'm CAMPING w/ an ERYTHROCYTE & MAC)
Chlamydia in birds is Tx with?Doxycycline (doxie & a bird playing together)
Which Macrolide do you never give IV?Tilmicosin CARDIOTOX (Mac annoys you till Till your heart stops)
Tox of Lincosamides?Possible enterocolitis → DONT USE IN HIND GUT FERMENTORS (link is a hind gut fermenter & lincs will kill link) (just imagine link w/ profuse diarrhea)
Tetracyclines have which type killing?Type 3 TIME+PAE (2 is time & shes bffs w/ 3) (Tetra = 4 = 4 times more powerful bc has 2 things bc type 3)
Oxytetracycline is for what?Ehrlichia in horses (youd think it was oxen, but no, horses w/ Ehrlichia...which you think would be dogs. Sigh.)
Why no oral tetra for horses?Dysbiosis → kills their flora
Are mino & doxy more or less potent than tetra, & why?MORE, bc more lipid soluble