Pharm 2- antiprotozoals

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-05-10 01:47

Drugs effective against amoebae and flagellates

Arsenicals, Aminoglycosides, nitrofurans, Nitroimidazoles, Benzimidazoles, Tetracyclines, Lincosamides

Question Answer
MOA for arsenicals?binds to disulphide bridges, inhibiting many enzyme systems
Nitarsone-->(which group) when do you use this drug? when do you not use this drug? (arsenicals) Feed additive given to turkeys and chickens to prevent histomoniasis--> need a Withdrawal time 5 days. Dangerous for ducks, pigeons, and dogs (feed turkeys and chickens some tar you'll see it on their histology then-- tar will poison other stuff tho)
Roxarsone-->(which group) used for what? precautions?(arsenicals) Growth promoter that also treats coccidiosis. Withdrawal time 5 days (rox against the bigger cox)
MOA for aminoglycosides? interferes with protein synthesis by binding to 16S tRNA at the 30S ribosomal subunit resulting in conformational changes, misreading of the genetic code and disruption of normal protein synthesis
which drug is here (aminoglycosides)? when is it not used? treats what? when IS it used?paramomycin! not used in pts with renal dz. off label use in goats and cattle treats leishmania and cryptosporidia (remember that Ami is rough on her kidneys- para mom shes better tho or mom would think she was a goat- satan)
MOA of nitrofuransProduction of free radicals which exert their toxic effects on parasites
how extensively can you use nitrofurans?Limited use due to carcinogenic and mutagenic potenital (the nitro fire might burn you)
what is the drug in this category (nitrofurans)? what does it treat?Nifurtimox, Treats T. cruzi in dogs and humans (nitro fury to the max--cruzin for a bruzin)
what are the nitroimidazoles in this category?metronidazol, tinidazol, ronidazole, benanidazole
MOA of Nitroimidazoles?production of free radicals that cause damage to protozal DNA (nitro explosions are radical)
when cant you use nitroimidazoles?NOT IN FOOD ANIMALS. NEVER EXTRA-LABEL USE
Metronidazol (which group) (effective against protozoa where, and why?)(nitroimidazoles) Effective against luminal & extra-luminal protozoa because reaches a high concentration in tissues
Tinidazole is used for treating what, in who? (which group)(nitroimidazoles) Treats Giardia in dogs and cats (Tin foil around giardia diarrhea)
Ronidazole is used to treat what? when is it NOT used? (which group)(nitroimidazoles) Treat T. gallinae, Histomonas meleagridis and T. foetus. NOT used in human or animals in the USA
Benanidazole is used for what? (which group)(nitroimidazoles)Treats acute trypanosomiasis in dogs (ben be trippin with his dawg)
MOA of benzimdazoles?binds to β-tubulin sub units of microtubules and henace interers with their polymerization resulting in structural changes to Giardia trophozoites
what are the two drugs mentioned in benzimidazoles?albendazole, fenbendazole
when is albendazole used? when is it not used? (group its in?)(benzimidazoles) Treats Giardia in humans, dogs, mice. Not recommended for cats or pregnant animals (Al doesnt like having giardia-- Al would kick a pregnant cat over it!)
when is fenbendazole used? what are related drugs which might also be used? (what group is this in)(benzimidazoles) Drug of choice for Giardia infections for dogs, cats, and cattle. Febantel is a pro-drug that is converted into fenbendazole and oxfendazole (Giardia is NOT fen.)
MOA tetracyclines?inhibits protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the 30S subunit of the protzoal ribosome and interfering with the binding of tRNA to the RNA ribosome complex
what are the three drugs used against ameobas and flagellates in tetracyclines?oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline
what is Oxytetracycline used for?Treat cattle with Anaplasma marginale (OXYclean for ANAs bullshit stains)
Chlortetracycline is used for?Treats Theileria equi (The Equi pool has CHLORine)
Doxycycline is used for?Prevents babesia canis (that little doxy is a babe)
MOA for lincosamides?inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of protosoal ribosomes and inhibit peptidyl transferase
what is the drug in lincosamides? what is it used for? (2)Clindamycin--(1)Drug of choice for Toxoplasma gondii infections in dogs and cats (2)Treats Hepatozoonosis americanum when combined with potentiated sulfonamides and pyrimetamine (Linda cant scoop cat poop, but with some sulfur her amerian spirit is fine)
what can treat leishmaniasis?amphotericin B, itraconazole, paramomycin
drug of choice for giardia?fenbendazole (fen knows how fen it isnt, so it treats it so you can have more fen!)

Drugs effective against Coccidia

Sulfonamides, Hydroxyquinolones and Naphthoquinones, Polyether Ionophores

Question Answer
MOA of sulfonamidesinterferes with folic acid synthesis
how effective are the sulfonamides?DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR SMALL ANIMAL COCCIDIA
how come host (mammal, avian) isnt harmed from sulfonamides, when both need folic acid?Mammalian and avian host are not sensitive to these drugs since they use preformed folate
which stage of the coccidia are sulfonamides most effective against?More effective against the asexual stage than sexual stage (sulfur and sex don't mix)
which sulfa can you use in poultry?ONLY sulfamethoxine–ormetoprim is approved for use in poultry (meth or chicken?)
which sulfa is used in horses/dogs/cats?Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (as a vet, it will seem like all horses/dogs/cats are gonna TRI to DIE)
what problem is there with using sulfonamides?resistance is common! (sulfur is so common, it's easy to resist)
egg layers are treated with?sulfonamides (you can coat your eggs in sulfur)
which drugs are the drugs of choice for small animal coccidia?sulfonamides
MOA of hydroxyquinolones and naphthoquinones?Inhibits coccoidial respiration by interfering with the cytochrome mediated electron transport in the mitochondria of the parasite
what are the Hydroxyquinolones?Decoquinate, Atovaquone (Dec and Atov used to get along. that's now water under the bridge)
what is useful to know about the hydroxyquinolones?(decoquinate, atovaquone) taking with food DOUBLES the bioavailaibility (they also have cross resistance)
what are the Naphthoquinones?Parvaquone, Buparvaquone (I'm PARtial to a NAP)
what are the napthoquinones used to treat?Babesia and Theileria (THE BABE took a NAP)
which two drugs in hydroxyquinolons and naphthoquinolones have cross resistance?Decquinate and Atovaquone (the hydroxyquinolones) (when I'm cross, I dec atov )
MOA of polyether ionophones?form lipophilic complexes with alkali metal cation (a lot of ether has the same effect as getting knocked out with a metal fat cat)
who should you not use polyether ionophores in?Toxic to equine and guinea fowls (don't give ether to horses in guinea)
what drugs should you not use with polyether ionophores?Toxic with concurrent administration of chloramphenicol, marcolides, sulfonamides, and cardiac glycosides (polly doesnt like CC's Macro sulfa)
what are the 6 drugs in the polyether ionophores category?Lasalocid, Maduramicin, Monensin, Narasin, Semduramicin, Salinomysin (SAL, MA MON, NARA SEM LAS)
Lasalocid--> (group?) can you combine this with other drugs? any contraindications?(polyether ionophores) Well tolerated with tiamulin. Transmitted to eggs of hens treated for more than 1 weeks (Tia likes that lass, but only 1 week at a time-- you know how girls are)
Maduramicin-->(group?) which animals is this used in? can you mix it with any other drugs? is there anything to look out for?(polyether ionophores) Does not negatively effect egg production or quality. Well tolerated with tiamulin. ONLY used in broilers (chickens) (my MA likes TIA, my ma made her some chicken in the broiler)
Monensin--> (group?) can you mix this with other drugs? is there anything to look out for?(polyether ionophores) Tiamulin effects metabolism! NOT transmitted to egg, NO effect on egg quality or production (TIA doesnt like that MON, even tho MON doesnt hurt anything)
Narasin--> (group?) can you mix this with other drugs? is there anything to look out for? who do you give this to?(polyether ionophores) Tiamulin effects metabolism. NO effect on egg quality or production. ONLY used in broilers NOT given to adult turkeys or other chickens (nara and tia don't get along. because nara eats a lot of chicken meat)
Salinomysin--> (group?) what should you know about this?(polyether ionophores) DO NOT use in layers (sal will destroy eggs)
amprolium is used to treat what? in who? can be combined with? MOA? (group?)(Thiamine Analogues) treats coccidiosis, also isospora in cats and dogs, can be combined with sulfadimethoxine to fight the coccidia. MOA=Amprolium is structurally related to the vitamine thiamine. The antiprotozoal activity is related to competitive inhibition of active thiamine transport into the protozoa (AMP goes to your thighs so you can run away from the isolated cock covered in sulfur.)
what are the polyether ionophores used for?coccidia
MOA of Hydroxyquinolones and Naphthoquinones,?The quinolone anticoccidials inhibit coccidial respiration by interfering with the cytochrome mediated electron transport in the mitochondria of the parasite.

Drugs effective against Sarcocytis neurona

Triazine Derivatives, Nitrothiazole Derivaties

Question Answer
MOA of triazine derivatives?acts on the apicoplast present in apicomplexan parasites: exact mechanism is unknown (I TRIed API once, I was PLASTered)
what are the three drugs in the triazine derivatives category?Diclazuril, Toltrazuril, Ponazuril (tri azuril, it's a good water pokemon that KILLS SARCOCYSTS)
Diclazuril--> (group?) what should we know about this(triazine derivatives) Not approved for laying hens (you should TRI to DI eggs for easter-- it's not good for them tho)
Toltrazuril-->(group?) effective against what stages of the sarcocystis neurona? what does it treat in who?(triazine derivatives) Effective against both the sexual and asexual stages. Treats EPM, Hepatozoon americanum ( TOLTRA the god of sex...and not sex. he kills americans with EPM)
Ponazuril-->(group?) treats what in who?(triazine derivatives)Treats EPM(choice) and Neospora caninum infections in cattle (cattle love POMAgranites, they are new to them. Horses like them too)
MOA of nitrothiazole derivatives?interfers with the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme dependent electron transfer reaction (those thias are fer-doxins to sit on)
how does metabolism effect nitrothiazole derivatives? in who?Converted into an active metabolite in both human and horses (humans and horses have very active thighs)
what's important to know about nitrothiazoles and treatment of sarcocystis neurona?Numerous adverse effects in horses so ONLY use when other drugs have no effect on EPM (going for the thighs is the LAST RESORT in horses)
nitazoxanide-- Group? MOA? for what?(Nitrothiazole Derivatives) interferes with the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme dependent electron transfer reaction. This system is responsible for anaerobic energy metabolism of the parasites.. tx of EPM but only when all else fails (active metabolite)

Drugs effective against piroplasms (group that includes babesia, is within apicomplexans)

Diamidine Derivaties

Question Answer
MOA of diamidine derivatives?binds to DNA and prevents replication (DD-->DNA)
what are the 5 drugs in this group?Diminazene diaceturate, Pentamindine isethionate, Phemamidine isethionate, Amicarbalide, Imidocarb diproionate (bunch of two-worders with ami an a car)
Pentamindine isethionate is used for what in who?Treats Babesiosis in dogs (penta--> that bitch is a babe, at least a 5)
Phemamidine isethionate is used for what in who?Treats Babesia infections in cattle, dogs and horses (that Phem Babe is always hanging out with cattle, horses, and dogs)
Amicarbalide is used for what in who? is NOT used for what in who?Treats babesiosis in cattle and horse. DOES NOT treat Theileria equi in horses (AMIsCAR is full of babes who like cows and horses, but THE-EQUI itself is not allowed in)
Imidocarb diproionate is used for what in who? is NOT used for what in who? cautions?Treats babesia but will significantly increase the urinary GGT-creatine ration. NOT effective against certain strains of Theileria equi (IMI is a BABE but she cant stop urinating. And she doesn't like horses)
drug of choice for babesia infections?Imidocarb dipropionate