Pharm 2 - Antiprotozoals

drraythe's version from 2015-11-22 18:42

Drugs effective against Amoebae & Flagellates

Arsenicals, Aminoglycosides, Nitrofurans, Nitroimidazoles, Benzimidazoles, Tetracyclines, Lincosamides

Question Answer
MOA for arsenicals?Binds to form Disulfide bridges, inhibiting many enzyme systems
Nitarsone → (which group) when do you use this drug? When do you not use this drug?(Arsenicals) Feed additive given to turkeys & chickens to prevent histomoniasis → need a Withdrawal time 5 days. Dangerous for ducks, pigeons & dogs (feed turkeys & chickens some tar you'll see it on their histology then - tar will poison other stuff tho)
Roxarsone → (which group) used for what? Precautions?(Arsenicals) Growth promoter that also Txs coccidiosis. Withdrawal time 5 days (rox against the bigger cox)
MOA for Aminoglycosides?interferes w/ protein synthesis by binding to 16S tRNA at the 30S ribosomal subunit resulting in conformational changes, misreading of the genetic code & disruption of normal protein synthesis
Which drug is here (Aminoglycosides)? When is it not used? Txs what? When IS it used?Paramomycin! not used in pts w/ renal dz. off label use in goats & cattle Txs Leishmania & Cryptosporidia (remember that Ami is rough on her kidneys- para mom shes better tho or mom would think she was a goat- satan)
MOA of NitrofuransProduction of free radicals which exert their toxic effects on parasites
How extensively can you use Nitrofurans?Limited use due to carcinogenic & mutagenic potential (the nitro fire might burn you)
What is the drug in this category (Nitrofurans)? What does it Tx?Nifurtimox, Txs T. cruzi in dogs & humans (nitro fury to the max - cruzin for a bruzin)
What are the Nitroimidazoles in this category?Metronidazol, Tinidazol, Ronidazole, Benanidazole
MOA of Nitroimidazoles?Production of free radicals that cz dmg to protozoal DNA (nitro explosions are radical)
When cant you use Nitroimidazoles?NOT IN FOOD ANIMALS. NEVER EXTRA-LABEL USE
Metronidazol (which group) (effective against protozoa where, & why?)(Nitroimidazoles) Effective against luminal & extra-luminal protozoa bc reaches a high concentration in tissues
Tinidazole is used for Txing what, in who? (Which group)(Nitroimidazoles) Txs Giardia in dogs & cats (Tin foil around Giardia diarrhea)
Ronidazole is used to Tx what? When is it NOT used? (Which group)(Nitroimidazoles) Tx T. gallinae, Histomonas meleagridis & T. foetus. NOT used in human or animals in the USA
Benanidazole is used for what? (Which group)(Nitroimidazoles)Txs acute trypanosomiasis in dogs (ben be trippin w/ his dawg)
MOA of Benzimidazoles?Binds to β-tubulin sub units of microtubules & hence interferes w/ their polymerization resulting in structural changes to Giardia trophozoites
What are the 2 drugs mentioned in Benzimidazoles?Albendazole, Fenbendazole
When is Albendazole used? When is it not used? (Group its in?)(Benzimidazoles) Txs Giardia in humans, dogs, mice. Not recommended for cats or pregnant animals (Al doesnt like having Giardia - Al would kick a pregnant cat over it!)
When is Fenbendazole used? What are related drugs which might also be used? (What group is this in)(Benzimidazoles) Drug of choice for Giardia infxns for dogs, cats, & cattle. Febantel is a pro-drug that is converted into Fenbendazole & Oxfendazole (Giardia is NOT fen.)
MOA Tetracyclines?Inhibits protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the 30S subunit of the protozoal ribosome & interfering w/ the binding of tRNA to the RNA ribosome complex
What are the 3 drugs used against amoebas & flagellates in Tetracyclines?Oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, Doxycycline
What is Oxytetracycline used for?Tx cattle w/ Anaplasma marginale (OXYclean for ANAs bullshit stains)
Chlortetracycline is used for?Txs Theileria equi (The Equi pool has CHLORine)
Doxycycline is used for?Prevents Babesia canis (that little doxy is a babe)
MOA for Lincosamides?Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of protozoal ribosomes & inhibit peptidyl xferase
What is the drug in Lincosamides? What is it used for? (2)Clindamycin (1) Drug of choice for Toxoplasma gondii infxns in dogs & cats (2) Txs Hepatozoonosis americanum when combined w/ Potentiated Sulfonamides & Pyrimetamine (Linda cant scoop cat poop, but w/ some sulfur her American spirit is fine)
What can Tx Leishmaniasis?Amphotericin B, Itraconazole, Paramomycin
Drug of choice for Giardia?Fenbendazole (fen knows how fen it isnt, so it Txs it so you can have more fen!)

Drugs effective against Coccidia

Sulfonamides, Hydroxyquinolones & Naphthoquinones, Polyether Ionophores

Question Answer
MOA of SulfonamidesInterferes w/ folic acid synthesis
How effective are the Sulfonamides?DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR SMALL ANIMAL COCCIDIA
How come host (mammal, avian) isnt harmed from Sulfonamides, when both need folic acid?Mammalian & avian host are not sensitive to these drugs since they use preformed folate
Which stage of the Coccidia are Sulfonamides most effective against?More effective against the asexual stage than sexual stage (sulfur & sex don't mix)
Which sulfa can you use in poultry?ONLY Sulfamethoxine–Ormetoprim is approved for use in poultry (meth or chicken?)
Which sulfa is used in horses/dogs/cats?Sulfadiazine-Trimethoprim (as a vet, it will seem like all horses/dogs/cats are gonna TRI to DIE)
What problem is there w/ using Sulfonamides?Resistance is common! (Sulfur is so common, it's easy to resist)
Egg layers are Txd with?Sulfonamides (you can coat your eggs in sulfur)
Which drugs are the drugs of choice for small animal Coccidia?Sulfonamides
MOA of Hydroxyquinolones & Naphthoquinones?Inhibits coccoidial respiration by interfering w/ the cytochrome mediated electron transport in the mitochondria of the parasite
What are the Hydroxyquinolones?Decoquinate, Atovaquone (Dec & Atov used to get along. that's now water under the bridge)
What is useful to know about the Hydroxyquinolones?(Decoquinate, Atovaquone) taking w/ food DOUBLES the bioavailability (they also have cross resistance)
What are the Naphthoquinones?Parvaquone, Buparvaquone (I'm PARtial to a NAP)
What are the Naphthoquinones used to Tx?Babesia & Theileria (THE BABE took a NAP)
Which 2 drugs in Hydroxyquinolones & Naphthoquinones have cross resistance?Decquinate & Atovaquone (the Hydroxyquinolones) (when I'm cross, I ↓ atov)
MOA of Polyether Ionophores?Form lipophilic complexes w/ alkali metal cation (a lot of ether has the same effect as getting knocked out w/ a metal fat cat)
Who should you not use Polyether Ionophores in?Toxic to equine & guinea fowls (don't give ether to horses in guinea)
What drugs should you not use w/ Polyether Ionophores?Toxic w/ concurrent administration of Chloramphenicol, Macrolides, Sulfonamides, & Cardiac Glycosides (polly doesnt like CC's Macro sulfa)
What are the 6 drugs in the Polyether Ionophores category?Lasalocid
Lasalocid → (Group?) Can you combine this w/ other drugs? Any contraindications?(Polyether Ionophores) Well tolerated w/ Tiamulin. Transmitted to eggs of hens Txd for more than 1 weeks (Tia likes that lass, but only 1 week at a time - you know how girls are)
Maduramicin → (Group?) Which animals is this used in? Can you mix it w/ any other drugs? Is there anything to look out for?(Polyether Ionophores) Does not negatively affect egg production or quality. Well tolerated w/ Tiamulin. ONLY used in broilers (chickens) (my MA likes TIA, my ma made her some chicken in the broiler)
Monensin → (Group?) Can you mix this w/ other drugs? Is there anything to look out for?(Polyether Ionophores) Tiamulin effects metabolism! NOT transmitted to egg, NO effect on egg quality or production (TIA doesnt like that MON, even tho MON doesnt hurt anything)
Narasin → (Group?) Can you mix this w/ other drugs? Is there anything to look out for? Who do you give this to?(Polyether Ionophores) Tiamulin effects metabolism. NO effect on egg quality or production. ONLY used in broilers NOT given to adult turkeys or other chickens (nara & tia don't get along. bc nara eats a lot of chicken meat)
Salinomysin → (Group?) What should you know about this?(Polyether Ionophores) DO NOT use in layers (sal will destroy eggs)
Amprolium is used to Tx what? In who? Can be combined with? MOA? (Group?)(Thiamine Analogues) Txs coccidiosis, also Isospora in cats & dogs, can be combined w/ Sulfadimethoxine to fight the Coccidia. MOA = Amprolium is structurally related to the vitamin Thiamine. The antiprotozoal activity is related to competitive inhibition of active Thiamine transport into the protozoa (AMP goes to your thighs so you can run away from the isolated cock covered in sulfur.)
What are the Polyether Ionophores used for?Coccidia
MOA of Hydroxyquinolones & Naphthoquinones?The Quinolone anti-coccidials inhibit coccidial respiration by interfering w/ the cytochrome mediated electron transport in the mitochondria of the parasite.

Drugs effective against Sarcocystis neurona

Triazine Derivatives, Nitrothiazole Derivatives

Question Answer
**MOA of Triazine Derivatives?Acts on the apicoplast present in Apicomplexan parasites: Exact mechanism is unknown (I TRIed API once, I was PLASTered)
What are the 3 drugs in the Triazine Derivatives category?Diclazuril, Toltrazuril, Ponazuril (tri azuril, it's a good water pokemon that KILLS SARCOCYSTS)
Diclazuril → (Group?) What should we know about this(Triazine Derivatives) Not approved for laying hens (you should TRI to DI eggs for easter - it's not good for them tho)
Toltrazuril → (Group?) effective against what stages of the Sarcocystis neurona? What does it Tx in who?(Triazine Derivatives) Effective against both the sexual & asexual stages. Txs EPM, Hepatozoon americanum (TOLTRA the god of sex...& not sex. He kills Americans w/ EPM)
Ponazuril → (Group?) Txs what in who?(Triazine Derivatives) Txs EPM (choice) & Neospora caninum infxns in cattle (cattle love POMAgranites, they are new to them. Horses like them too)
MOA of Nitrothiazole derivatives?Interferes w/ the Pyruvate-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase enzyme dependent electron xfer rxn (those thias are fer-doxins to sit on)
How does metabolism effect Nitrothiazole derivatives? In who?Converted into an active metabolite in both human & horses (humans & horses have very active thighs)
What's important to know about Nitrothiazoles & Tx of Sarcocystis neurona?Numerous adverse effects in horses so ONLY use when other drugs have no effect on EPM (going for the thighs is the LAST RESORT in horses)
Nitazoxanide - Group? MOA? For what?(Nitrothiazole Derivatives) interferes w/ the Pyruvate-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase enzyme dependent electron xfer rxn. This system is responsible for anaerobic energy metabolism of the parasites.. Tx of EPM but only when all else fails (active metabolite)

Drugs effective against Piroplasms (group that inclds Babesia, is w/in Apicomplexans)

Diamidine Derivaties

Question Answer
MOA of Diamidine derivatives?Binds to DNA & prevents replication (DD → DNA)
What are the 5 drugs in this group?Diminazene Diaceturate
Pentamindine Isethionate
Phemamidine Isethionate
Imidocarb Dipropionate
(Bunch of 2-worders w/ ami an a car)
Pentamindine Isethionate is used for what in who?Txs Babesiosis in dogs (penta → that bitch is a babe, at least a 5)
Phemamidine Isethionate is used for what in who?Txs Babesia infxns in cattle, dogs & horses (that Phem Babe is always hanging out w/ cattle, horses, & dogs)
Amicarbalide is used for what in who? Is NOT used for what in who?Txs Babesiosis in cattle & horse. DOES NOT Tx Theileria equi in horses (AMIsCAR is full of babes who like cows & horses, but THE-EQUI itself is not allowed in)
Imidocarb Dipropionate is used for what in who? Is NOT used for what in who? Cautions?Txs Babesia but will significantly ↑ the urinary GGT-creatine ration. NOT effective against certain strains of Theileria equi (IMI is a BABE but she cant stop urinating. & she doesn't like horses)
Drug of choice for Babesia infxns?Imidocarb Dipropionate