Pharm 2 - Antimicrobials 7

isabellepjk's version from 2017-10-11 00:36

Misc. Antimicrobials

Bacitracin + Novobiocin + Thiostrepton + Virginiamycin + Carbadox

Question Answer
MOA for Bacitracin?Inhibit cell wall synth (specifically the peptidoglycans)
*Admin of Bacitracin?TOPICAL
(Bacitracin) what special property has what special effect (it controls ___)Controls OOZING bc of zinc's astringent properties
*How is Bacitracin often given to pigs/poultry? To prevent?Feed additive, to prevent Clostridium perfringens
How common is resistance to Bacitracin?Rare
Novobiocin is good to fight what bact?G- & G+
What is the MOA of Novobiocin?Inhibit cell wall synth, & DNA/RNA/protein synth
Novobiocin can be used to treat Penicillin resistant _________Staph
What would you combine w/ Novobiocin & what extra stuff can you kill w/ this combo?Combine w/ Tetracycline to cure tonsillitis & KENNEL COUGH
Thiostrepton is effective against what kind of bact? What kinda sickness?G+s, SKIN INFECTIONS
*Thiostrepton is administered how?Topical
Virginiamycin MOA?Inhibit protein synth
Virginiamycin cidal or static?Cidal
Virginiamycin is usually administered how?Feed additive
*Carbadox is given to what animals? Why?Piggies...growth promoter
Adverse effect of Carbadox?↓ aldosterone production
Why does the preparation of Bacitracin have zinc in it?It acts as an astringent, which shrinks/constricts the tissues - so Bacitracin can work on the bacteria w/out the infected tissue getting in the way
Desirable combination of fractions of Virginiamycin?M:S (fractions) (4:1) –synergistic, bactericidal

Vancomycin + Methenamine + Polymyxin B & Colistin (Polymyxin E) + Nitrofurans

Question Answer
Vancomycin works against what bact?G+s, aerobic & anaerobic (COCCI)
Administer of Vancomycin?Poor oral, IV
MOA of Vancomycin?Inhibit cell wall synth
What do you administer Vancomycin w/?Aminoglycosides
What toxicity of Vancomycin is there?Nephrotoxicity
*What must you keep in mind while you are IV infusing Vancomycin?SLOW!!! Can cause histamine release
Who should you not give Vancomycin to?NO USE IN FOOD ANIMALS
**Methenamine is given for what problem? What must you keep in mind w/ this?UTIs, but the urine must be acidic (to liberate the formaldehyde)
**Methenamine should never be given w/ what?Sulfonamides - makes crystalluria worse
**Polymyxin B & Colistin work how?Disrupt cell membranes
**Describe the absorption of Polymyxin B & Colistin, & bc of this, what do you treat w/ it?NO GI absorption, so use for bowel sterilization for sx
**How can Polymyxin B & Colistin be administered, aside from GI shit?Topical
What bact are killed w/ Polymyxin B & Colistin?G- endotoxins & Pseudomonas
**What special property makes Polymyxin B & Colistin super useful?BINDS & NEUTRALIZES ENDOTOXINS
Colistin akaPolymyxin E
Polymyxin B & Colistin are bacterio___Cidal
Nitrofurans - 2 drugs from this class?FURAZOLIDONE, NITROFURANTOIN
MOA for Nitrofurans?Inhibits bacterial energy production – blocks oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate acetyl coenzyme A
How are Nitrofurans administered?Oral/topical
Risk w/ systemic admin of Nitrofurans?NEUROTOXICITY
Which Nitrofuran is not used in food animals, & why?Furazolidone, bc it has a CARCINOGENIC METABOLITE
Who’s good at fighting the endotoxins of bact?Polymyxins
Which 2 combos of Polymyxins have synergistic effects?Polymyxin + Sulfonamides, & also Colistin + Co-Trimoxazole
**Spectrum of Polymyxin?Narrow

"Which drugs affect what" review

Question Answer
Cell wallβ-lactams (Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Carbapenem, Monobactams), Bacitracin, Vancomycin, Cycloserine
Folic acidSulfonamides, Diaminopyrimidies
Cell membranePolymyxin B, Colistin
DNAFluoroquinolones, Metronidazole
50S protein shitChloramphenicol, Lincomycin, Macrolides
30S protein shitTetracyclines, Aminoglycosides
NOT FOR FOOD ANIMALSMetronidazole, Vancomycin, Nitrofurans, Chloramphenicol
CPY450 inhibitionsChloramphenicol & Macrolides
CPY450 inductionsRifampin
CPY450 metabolismMetronidazole
Feed additiveBacitracin, Tiamulin, Virginiamycin, Carbadox
Macrophage accumulationFluoroquinolones, Rifampin
CrystalluriaSulfonamides & Fluoroquinolones
Toxo treating?Clindamycin, Virginiamycin, Potentiated Sulfas
Single SC injection for pyoderma is what drug?Cefovicin