Pharm 2 - Antimicrobials 6

drraythe's version from 2015-09-10 13:02


Question Answer
**MOA for Fluoroquinolones?Inhibit DNA synth via inhibition DNA gyrase/Topoisomerase II enzyme
Fluoros are cidal or static?Cidal
Spectrum of Fluoros?Broad
Killing kinetics of Fluoros?Type 1 - Conc-Dependent
What are the 7 Fluoros we care about?Ciprofloxacin
Which Fluoro is good against Pseudomonas?Ciprofloxacin (Cippin on that drink gave me Pseudomonas)
Which Fluoros are good for treating pyoderma & ehrlichiosis?Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin (MarbEn will clear your skin & get your blood clean)
Which Fluoro is excreted in the feces?Difloxacin (poo makes me want to die) (just like Doxy, both start with D & are excreted in feces)
Which Fluoro is good against STAPH, G+s, & ENTEROCOCCI?Premafloxacin (That prema donna wont eat, it's killing all her Gut germs)
How does pH affect Fluoros?Fluoroquinolones are more active in an alkaline environment (pH > 7.4) (Mac likes ladies above an 8, Ami is a basic bitch, & Flo is a basic bitch too)
How do cations affect Fluoros?More cations, less effectiveness of the Fluoros (Fluoros tend to hurt cats)
**Where do Fluoros tend to accumulate?In the macrophages (so, good for intracellular infections!) (Think of Flo in a giant white cell)
How can bacteria try to gain resistance to Fluoros?Efflux
Structurally modified target site (↓ number of porinsin target cells, cellular membrane efflux mechanisms)
What are the adverse effects of Fluoros?Photosensitivity
↑ CNS activity bc inhibit GABA (seizures)
GI upset
Arthropathy (bc chelation of Mg++)
Retinal degeneration in cats
What should you look out for w/ cats & Fluoros?Retinal degeneration can happen (uh YEAH fluoride would burn your retinas)
What affect can Fluoros have on the CNS?Bad excitation bc inhibit GABA (seizures)
How can Fluoros affect the excretory systems?Cause crystalluria
Fluoros affect what bacteria?G+s, G-s including Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma; Chlamydia; Mycobacteria; Ureaplasma
2 factors that affect Fluoro action?Cations at site of action, & acidic pH (Flo doesn't like cats & shes a basic bitch)
Poultry infections can be treated well w/Enrofloxacin & Sarafloxacin (Sara & enro got chickens)
Can Fluoros do intracellular parasites?Yes (think of Flo standing inside of a WBC & also a normal cell)
**Why is there joint arthropathy?Chelation of Mg++ by drug → proteoglycan loss in the articular cartilage (so, tetras chelate Ca++ & stuff, which means you cant have w/ food/milk & why you get messed up teeth, & Fluoro chelates w/ Mg++ & your joints go bad)
**Bad tox effect of Fluoro?Joint arthropathy (fluoride in your joints is bad yo) (chelation of Mg++)

Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole)

Question Answer
Metro cidal or static?Cidal
MOA of metro?Inhibit DNA synth
Killing kinetic type of metro?Type 1 - Conc-Dependent
**What can you use metro to kill?Protozoans & obligate anaerobes
What are ways you can admin metro?Oral is best, but can also do IM/IV
Who should you never use metro w/?FOOD ANIMALS
What type of solubility does metro have?High LIPID soluble
How common is resistance to metro?Rare to develop resistance
How well distributed is metro?Highly distributed, incld CNS
Metabolism? Notes about it?CYP450, active metabolite, WHICH IS CARCINOGENIC! (that means no production animals)
What animals should you NOT use Nitroimidazoles' on? Prohibited in food producing animals


Question Answer
**MOA of Rifampin?Inhibit DNA dependent RNA synth
Spectrum of Rifampin?Broad
How do you admin Rifampin?Oral
Which animal has high bioavail of Rifampin?Dogs
Due to oral admin, what metabolism does Rifampin experience?1st pass effect & enterohepatic circulation
What delays absorption for Rifampin?Food in belly (oral admin) - sheep esp. delayed
**How is the distribution of Rifampin?Wide distribution (CSF, exudates, ascetic fluid, bone, & soft tissues) (THE RIFT IS WIDE)
**Where does Rifampin tend to accumulate?In macrophages (good for intracellular infections)
What weird side effect can Rifampin have?Red-orange discoloration of saliva, sweat, tears, urine & feces
When should you not use Rifampin?In animals w/ liver damage
How can you ↓ the chance of resistance forming?Combine w/ other abx
Metabolism of Rifampin?LIVER ENZYMES CYTOCHROME P450!
**You should ALWAYS use in combo w/ other drugs bc...Microbial resistance my form quickly (single step mutation)
**Major Dz uses of Rifampin?TB/mycobacteria