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Pharm 2 - Antimicrobials 1

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dslemeraldcity's version from 2016-05-30 23:11

Intro to Antimicrobials

Question Answer
Where do antimicrobials come from? Antibiotics?Antimicrobials can be synthetic or natural
Antibiotics are derived from microorganisms
What is prophylactic?Given for prevention of dz
What is metaphylactic?Treating animals that are in close contact w/ diseased animals
What are the Antimicrobials that interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis? (4)(1) β-lactams (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenem+Monobactam)
(2) Bacitracin
(3) Vancomycin
(4) Cycloserine
What are the antimicrobials which act on the bacterial cell membrane? (2)(1) Polymyxin B
(2) Colistin
(gotta MYX the COLd soup and cover it with a plastic membrane)
What are the 2 categories of antimicrobials interfering bacterial protein synthesis?(1) Effect on 30S ribosomal sub-unit (30 is where its AT - Aminoglycosides & Tetracyclines)
(2) Effect on 50S ribosomal sub-unit (50 is CaLM - Chloramchenicol, Lincosamin, Marcrolides)
Which antimicrobials affect bacterial protein synthesis at the 30S ribosomal sub-unit?Tetracyclines & Aminoglycosides (30 is where its AT - Aminoglycosides & Tetracyclines)
Which antimicrobials affect bacterial protein synthesis at the 50S ribosomal sub-unit?Chloramphenicol (& derivatives)
Lincomycin
Macrolides
(50 is CaLM)
What are the antimicrobials interfering bacterial nucleic acid synthesis (3)(1) Fluoroquinolones
(2) Rifampin
(3) Metronidazole
( met took acid, floated on the rift)
What are Antimicrobials interfering bacterial folic acid synthesis? (2)(1) Sulfonamides
(2) Diaminopyrimidines
Which antimicrobials are broad spectrum? (7)Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol+friends
Macrolides+Lincomycin
Fluoroquinolones
Sulfonamides
Rifampin
(Chloe MacLin had the flu & she sulked for 4 hours playing rifs on her guitar, thats 1 sensitive broad)
Which antimicrobials are narrow spectrum? (4)(1) β-lactams
(2) Aminoglycosides
(3) Polymyxin B
(4) Colistin
(Ami's Β was Myxed-up in her colon - it wasn't a narrow escape)
Which antimicrobials are bactericidal? (6)(1) β-lactams
(2) Polymyxin B
(3) Colistin
(4) Aminoglycosides
(5) Fluoroquinolones
(6) Metronidazole
ami met Beth in polland, it was cold & they both died of the flu
Which antimicrobials are bacteriostatic? (6)(1) Tetracyclines
(2) Chloramphenicol & derivatives
(3) Macrolides
(4) Lincomycin
(5) Sulfonamides
(6) Diaminopyrimidines
(Mac dipped Lin in the pool w/ chlorine & made 4 times more sulfur - I want to STOP going there)
"Type 1 antimicrobial" refers to which classification, & what is the effect?Killing kinetics, Concentration-Dependent Effect
"Type 2 antimicrobial" refers to which classification, & what is the effect?Killing kinetics, Time-Dependent Effect
"Type 3 antimicrobial" refers to which classification, & what is the effect?Killing kinetics, Time-Dependent Killing kinetic + Post-Antibiotic Effect (lingering effects of abx after Tx is finished) (3 likes 2, & lingers in her presence)
Concentration-Dependent Effect of killing kinetics classification is Type _________ antimicrobial1
Time-Dependent Effect of killing kinetics classification is Type _________ antimicrobial2 (2 is a timeless personality)
Time-Dependent killing kinetic + Post-antibiotic effect is Type _________ antimicrobial3
There are 5 good reasons to use combination therapy w/ antimicrobial drugs. What are they?(1) Treating mixed bacterial infection
(2) Synergistic (sum greater than parts) activity
(3) Prevent drug resistance
(4) Minimize toxicity
(5) Prevent inactivation of drug via bacterial enzymes
Bacteriostatic + bacteriostatic drugs in combo have what effect?Additive
Bactericidal + bactericidal drugs in combo have what effect?Synergistic (sum greater than its parts) (KILLING ESCALATES!)
Bacteriostatic + bactericidal drugs in combo have what effect?ANTAGONISTIC (static stops the cidal from working right)
What are some NATURAL resistances to abx's bacteria have?Protective outer membrane
Lack of specific transport system of antimicrobial
Lack of specific target site of action
Acquired genetic factors of abx resistance can be? (2)(1) Chromosomal mutations
(2) Plasmids (resistance transfer factors)
Drug resistance can be transferred by? (3)(1) Conjugation (sex pilus)
(2) Transduction (bacteriophage, ie virus, transfers DNA from 1 bact to another)
(3) Transformation (environmental DNA is picked up by the bact & incorporated into its genome)
What are the biochemical mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance? (4)(1) Antimicrobial inactivation (inactivate it)
(2) ↓ drug accumulation in the bacterium (keep it out or pump it out)
(3) Structurally modified antibiotic target site (change your target site)
(4) Development of an alternate metabolic pathway (change your metabolism)
Antimicrobial inactivation is which type of mechanism of antimicrobial resistance? What happens during this?Biochemical mechanism. Bacteria acquire genes encoding enzymes that inactivate antibiotics
What are 2 ways the bact can cause ↓ drug accumulation?(1) ↓ the permeability
(2) ↑ drug efflux
memorize

By Site of Action (drug)

Question Answer
What do β-lactams affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis
What do Penicillins affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis (β-lactam)
What do Cephalosporins affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis (β-lactam)
What does Carbapenem & Monobactam affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis (β-lactams)
What does Bacitracin affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis
What does Vancomycin affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis
What does Cycloserine affect?Bacterial cell wall synthesis
What does Polymyxin B affect?Bacterial cell membrane
What does Colistin affect?Bacterial cell membrane
What do Tetracyclines affect?Bacterial protein synth at the 30S ribosomal subunit
What do Aminoglycosides affect?Bacterial protein synth at the 30S ribosomal subunit
What do Chloramphenicol & derivatives affect?Bacterial protein synth at the 50S ribosomal subunit
What do Macrolides affect?Bacterial protein synth at the 50S ribosomal subunit
What does Lincomycin affect?Bacterial protein synth at the 50S ribosomal subunit
What do Fluoroquinolones affect?Interfere w/ bacterial nucleic acid synthesis (DNA)
What does Rifampin affect?Interfere w/ bacterial nucleic acid synthesis (RNA)
What does Metronidazole affect?Interfere w/ bacterial nucleic acid synthesis (DNA)
What do Sulfonamides affect?Interfering bacterial folic acid synthesis (DHPS)
What do Diaminopyrimidines affect?Interfering bacterial folic acid synthesis (DHFR)
memorize

By Site of Action (group)

Question Answer
Which interfere w/ bact wall synth?β-lactams (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenem+Monobactam)
Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Cycloserine
(she was cycling on vancouvers wall → β got bac!)
Which act on the cell membrane?Polymyxin B
Colistin
(many colon membranes or MYX the COLd soup & cover it with a plastic MEMBRANE)
Which interfere w/ protein synth → 30S?Tetracyclines
Aminoglycosides
(for all protein 1s → AT 30 youll have 50 Mean Little Cats OR 30 is where its AT & 50 is CaLM)
Which interfere w/ protein synth → 50S?Chloramphenicol+derivatives
Macrolides
Lincomycin
(for all protein 1s → AT 30 youll have 50 Mean Little Cats OR 30 is where its AT & 50 is CaLM)
Which interfere w/ nucleic acid synthesis?Fluoroquinolones
Rifampin
Metronidazole
(met took acid & flowed on the rift)
Which interfere w/ folic acid synth?Sulfonamides
Diaminopyrimidines
(sulfur acid farts make me want to die)
memorize

By Spectrum (Narrow or broad?)

Question Answer
TetracyclinesBroad
Chloramphenicol+derivativesBroad
Macrolides+LincomycinBroad
FluoroquinolonesBroad
SulfonamidesBroad
RifampinBroad
β-lactamNarrow
AminoglycosidesNarrow
Polymyxin BNarrow
ColistinNarrow
What are the narrow spectrum 1s?β-lactams
Aminoglycosides
Polymyxin B
Colistin
(Ami's β was myxed-up in her colon - it wasnt a narrow escape)
memorize

Bacteriocidal or Bacteriostatic

Question Answer
Β-lactamsCidal
Polymyxin BCidal
ColistinCidal
AminoglycosidesCidal
FluoroquinolonesCidal
MetronidazoleCidal
TetracyclinesStatic
Chloramphenicol & derivativesStatic
MacrolidesStatic
LincomycinStatic
SulfonamidesStatic
What are the static 1s?Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol+derivatives
Macrolides
Lincomycin
Sulfonamides
Diaminopyrimidines
(mac dipped lin the pool w/ chlorine & made 4 times more sulfur → I want to STOP(static) going there)
memorize