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Pharm 1 - Cholinergics

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dslemeraldcity's version from 2016-02-29 01:24

Cholinergic agonists

Question Answer
What are the two types of direct cholinergic agonists?Choline esters & cholinomimetic alkaloids. (Direct ester acids)
What are the choline esters?Methacholine, Carbachol, Bethanechol
What is methacholine? What does it do?Direct agonist choline ester. Mild nicotinic; strong muscarinic agonist. Rumen atony & impaction in cattle. Impaction colic in horses
What is carbachol? What does it do?Direct agonist choline ester. Very potent nicotinic & muscarinic agonist. Rumen atony & impaction in cattle. Impaction colic in horses
What is bethanechol? What does it do?Direct agonist choline ester. Selectively stimulates muscarinic receptors. Use for GI paralytic ileus. Treat urinary retention
What are the cholinomimetic alkaloids?Pilocarpine!
What is pilocarpine? What does it do?Cholinomimetic alkaloid, direct cholinergic agonist, eyedrops to treat glaucoma
What are the two categories of indirect cholinergic agonists? What does this category essentially act on?Reversible, irreversible. Acetyl-esterASE-INHIBITOR. (Stop break-down enzyme from working= more ACh available to use)
What are the reversible indirect cholinergic agonists?Physostigmine, Neostigmine, Edrophonium, Pyridostigmine
What is physostigmine? What does it do?Inhibit acetyl-esterase. Treat/manage Tx glaucoma
What is neostigmine, what does it do?Inhibit acetyl-esterase. Treat/manage Tx myasthenia gravis (New plan-- kill the enzyme)
What is edrophonium, what does it do?Inhibit acetyl-esterase. Treat manage Tx myasthenia gravis/cholinergic crisis (Make a short phone call to my Gram)
What is pyridostigmine, what does it do?Inhibit acetyl-esterase. Treat/manage Tx myasthenia gravis (longer-acting)
What are the irreversible indirect cholinergic agonists?Organophosphates! POISONS!
Notable about irreversible indirect cholinergic agonist treatment?Does it have CARBAMATE? Give atropine then stop. Does it NOT have carbamate? Then give atropine & 2-PAM (Pralidoxime)
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Cholinergic antagonists

Question Answer
Section & subsection of cholinergic antagonists were gonna care about?Antimuscarinics, nonselective
What are the nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists?Atropine, Scopolamine, Glycopyrrolate, Ipratropium, Pirenzepine
What is atropine? What does it do?Nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists. Antispasmodic agent, Mydriatic & cycloplegic (not indicated in glaucoma), Antisecretory agent, Antidote for cholinergic agonists
What is scopolamine? What does it do?Nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists. Treat motion sickness
What is glycopyrrolate? What does it do?Nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists. Preanaesthetic use in veterinary medicine
What is ipratropium? What does it do?Nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists. Bronchodilation
What is pirenzepine? What does it do?Nonselective antimuscarinic cholinergic antagonists. Reduces gastric acid secretion
Agents which inhibit ACh production?Hemicholinium, Vesamicol
What are the M1 selective antagonists?Pirenzepine, Telenzepine
Homatropine is? Does?Antimuscarinic agent. Mydriasis & cycloplegia
Ipratropium is? Does?Antimuscarinic agent. Bronchodilation
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Random Cholinergic

Question Answer
What is black widow spider toxin? What does it do?Alpha-latrotoxin. Binds to neurexins (nerve terminal membrane proteins) & release NTs followed by permanent blockade
What does botulinum toxin do?Inhibition of exocytosis of ACh
What does muscarine do?Initiates muscarinic effects "sludge" - Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastrointestinal upset, Emesis
What does nicotine do?Initiated nicotinic effects (days of the week mnemonic: " MTWThF" mydirasis/mm cramps, tachycardia, weakness, twitching, hypertension/glycemia, fasiculation (more mm twitches)
What does aracholine do?(From a nut) Cholinergic agonist works like pilocarpine (I'm a nut for fish)
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