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Pharm 1 - Behavioral Drugs

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isabellepjk's version from 2017-05-07 00:17

Section

Question Answer
What is a FAP? What are examples?Fixed action pattern
Instinctive behavioral sequence
Innate releasing mechanisms
Sign stimulus/releaser
*On which substrates does MAO-A work and which NS does it work on?5-HT (serotonin), NE, and Epi
Central and peripheral
*On which substrates does MAO-B work and which NS does it work on?NE and Dopamine
Central ONLY
(NeD, B my ONLY CENTer)
*What might cause serotonin syndrome, & explain the syndromeMAO-A
it causes hypertension, hyperthermia, metabolic ACIDosis, rhabdomyolysis
*What kind of drug is selegiline? What is it used for? Side effects?Selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitor. (Gil B the CENTER of my world bc he DOPE); Increases dopamine
Used to treat cognitive dysfunction (dementia) in dogs, fear and phobias, pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism
Side effects = hyperactivity & stereotypic behavior
*Tricyclic Antidepressants/SNRIs have affinity for what? Adverse effects?
What type of effects for a1 antagonists have?
Metabolism?
NE > 5-HT (serotonin) (sNris like Norep more than serotonin)
Adverse effects = hypotension, tachycardia, arrhythmia
a1-antags = antihistamine and anticholinergic effects
CYP450 metabolism!
*For what are SNRIs used in dogs? Cats?Dogs = Excessive arousal (mild aggression), Canine compulsive Disorders, Anxiety, MAY enhance learning
Cats = Certain aggressions, inappropriate urination and spraying, anxiety, vocalization, excessive grooming
*What type of drug is amitriptyline?
What is its affinity?
what kind of properties does is possess?
What does it do?
SNRI
5-HT > NOR.
Anticholinergic, antihistamine, a1-antagonist, and analgesic properties
What is the active metabolite of amitriptyline?Nortriptyline
*Which drug class is clomipramine?
What is its affinity?
What is it used for?
SNRI
5-HT >> NOR.
Separation anxiety, canine compulsive disorders
What class of drug is Imipramine?
What is it's affinity?
What is it used for?
Separation anxiety; has moderate effects on cholinergic and adrenergic receptors
*To what do SSRIs have more specific affinity?More specific for 5-HT uptake (sSris like Serotonin more the norep)
*What are the SSRI indications in dogs and cats?Dogs = separation anxiety, compulsive behaviors, dominance, or impulsive aggression
Cats = Urine spraying, aggression, compulsive behavior such as fabric chewing and psychogenic alopecia (sSri for Sychogenic chewing - major difference between SNRI ans SSRI)
*What are the SSRIs?Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, sertaline, fluvoxamine, citalpram (escitalopram=S-citalopram)
*What are the adverse effects of SSRIs?GI in cats, Nervous system alterations: sedation/agitation/irritability and isomnia.
Most common: lethargy, calming, depression - anorexia/dec appetite
What are the receptors acting as direct targets of psychotropic drugs (4)Monoamines and corresponding receptors (adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotinergic), amino acids, neuropeptides & neurosteroids.
*What kind differences can be seen regarding receptors acting as direct targets of psychotropic drugs?Inter-individual differences in number and location of receptors
Interspecies differences in expression and location of receptors
*Which tranquilizers are used in behavior modification?
What are some problems that can arise?
Benzos alprazolam, diazepam, midazolam, oxazepam
Cats have a long resistance time because they do not glucuronidate.
Hepatotoxicity
In a dopaminergic synapse, what is missing?Enzyme B-dopamine hydroxyls is missing, so DOPA can't be turned into NOR
*What is the clinical use of neurolepticsUsed as dopamine receptor antagonists (sedatives & anxiolytics)
What are the non-specific actions of dopamine receptor antagonists (neuroleptics) (4)Block ACh-M, alpha adrenoceptors, histamine receptors, serotonin receptors
*What are the examples and uses of hormones as behavioral drugsProgestin & Estrogens = Used to suppress excitatory effects of glutamate, suppress male behavior.
Testosterone = inhibitors treat aggression in male dogs
Why does efficacy of behavioral drugs vary?Receptors cross talk and effects are often time dependent
SLIDE 23 in behavior pptLOOK AT IT
What are the 3 examples of receptor cross talk causing variation in drug efficacy?Adrenergic B-receptor stimulation INHIBITS release of serotonin
Adrenergic a1-receptor stimulation INCREASES the release dopamine and serotonin
Dopamine down-regulates serotonin auto-receptors
*Pheromones (2) & uses?Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) separation anxiety, destructive behavior, phobias.
Feline Facial Pheromone (FFP) treat urine spraying, avoidance of social contact, cat aggression, appetite loss
*IMPORTANT for prescriptions!NEVER combine MAO-I and TCA - SNRIs or SSRIs
most of these drugs have delayed excretion
Inhibition of CP450
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