Which G proteins match up w/ α1, α2, & β receptors?
α1= Gq. α2= Gi. β1/2= Gs (QIS!!)
Which is long/short neuron for adrenergic system? Cholinergic system?
ADRENERGIC is short preganglionic & long postganglionic. CHOLINERGIC is long preganglionic & short postganglionic [ganglion is close to parasymp bc it can just go do it's own thing while we don't pay attention]
Which adrenergic receptor works post synoptically? Which works pre?
POSTsynaptically is α1 (aka Gq)...PREsynaptically is α2 (aka Gi) [α -2-year-old-preteen is Immature]
Which adrenergic receptors (α1, α2, β) have what effect on sm. mm. (what are their G proteins?)
α1=Gq=sm.mm. Contraction...α2=Gi=sm.mm. Contraction...β=Gs=sm.mm. Relaxation (β is only relaxation one, even w/ M receptors, βs the only one)
What is the path of inhibition of Gi?
Inhibit adenylate cyclase would ↓ CAMP, which would ↑ K+ out flux (more K out of cell) & ↓ Ca++ influx (more Ca++ out of cell)
What do sympatholytics do the same thing as?
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
What are the two types of nicotinic receptors?
Nm (nicotinic muscular) & Nn (nicotinic neuronal)
What are the types of muscarinic receptors? What G-protein do they correlate w/? What does the G-protein mean (in relation to sm. mm. action)
Q=queer=odd. M1=Gq. M2=Gi. M3=Gq. M4=Gi. M5=Gq. (Gq=sm mm contraction) (Gi=sm mm contraction) (So, M receptors all activate sm mm)
Describe how sympathetic (adrenergic) system affects kidneys?
The post ganglionic NT is DOPAMINE! (Those are some dope kidneys)
Describe how the symp. system affects sweat glands?
ACh is the NT POSTganglionically!
What is NANC? Ex? Where?
Noradrenergic noncholinergic neurons. These release NITRIC OXIDE at the POSTganglionic terminal. NO does penile erection, also has GI effects (inhibit motility & vascular effect (vasoDILATE)
What are two ways a receptor is able to cause a response in the cell?
(1) The receptor is connected to a G-protein which is inside the cell (2) Receptor is connected to a ligand-gated ion channel
Vasoconstriction & sphincter constrictor (1=constriction...on outside so pushes in)
(Remember, α2=Gi=sm.mm. contraction. but remember α2 works PREsynaptically) Clonidine, Apraclonidine, Methyl-dopa, Xylazine, Detomidine, Medetomidine, Romifidine (5 de(a)nes, a zene(a), & a dope are walking down the street..)
What is Medetomidine? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Anesthetic premed. Treat emergence delirium following anesthesia (MEDelirious) (cytochrome p450 (enzyme) is inhibited by Medetomidine)
What is Romifidine? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Anaesthetic premed (aka sedative) IV use in horses. (During Ramadan, not eating makes me feel sedated)
What is Clonidine? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Treats hypertension (so vasodilators) (α but 2 so opposite) (clowns push your BVs open)
What is Apraclonidine? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Treats glaucoma.
What is Methyl-dopa? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Treats hypertension. (so, vasodilators) [stop being so tensa, ya dopa. its 2 much agony]
What is Xylazine? What does it do?
α2 agonist. Sedative-anesthetic premedication. (Reversed by Yohimbine)