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Pharm 1-5

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mhewett's version from 2016-06-21 20:08

Chapter 1 Drug Interactions

Question Answer
What are drugs that are easily displaced from albumin?these are drugs that bind albumin but are easily knocked off
Is a drug inactive or active when bound to albumin?inactive. the active is not bound to albumin
What type of drugs more readily bind to albumin?hydrophobic
what are drugs that induce p-450s and what might occur?these cause an increase in activity of p-450s. this may lead to less drugs in blood due to increase in metabolism
what are inhibitor of p-450s and what might this cause?decreased/inhibit p450s. this means there may be more drug in the body than expected bc of a decrease in metabolism.
what is the mnemonic for drugs easily displaced from albumin?serum proteins can spew (sulfonamides, phenylbutazone, coumadin, sulfonylureas)
what is the mnemonic for drugs that induce P450s?one pharmaceutical brings about rapid liver metabolism (Oral contraceptives, phenytoin, barbiturates, alcohol, rifampin, l-dopa, methadone)
what is the mnemonic for drugs that inhibit p450s?some pharmaceutical classes inhibit drug metabolism (sulfonamides, phenylbutazone, chloramphenicol, Isoniazid, dicumarol, cimetidine)
what is the mnemonic for drugs that compete for renal transporters?some pharmaceuticals plus urate stop transporters (sulfonamides, probenecid, peni, urate, salicylates, thiazides)
what type of drug would you not want to give someone with gout? what drug at high concentration is an exception to this rule?one that blocks renal tubules. probenecid
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Chapter 2 Bad Combinations

Question Answer
nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity from AG are increased by what drugs?loop diuretic
What in combination with SSRI may lead to serotonin syndrome?MAO inhibitors
if you use antiarrhythmics with fluoroquinolones what may occur?prolonged QT syndrome/torsades
what are AG used to treat?Gram - aerobes
what is the MOA of MAO inhibitors?to increase monoamines such as serotonin and NE.
which of the following is an antidepressant, MAO inhibitor or AGMAO inhibitor.
what is the MOA of fluoroquinolones?inhibit topoisomerase, antibiotic
what is rifampin used for?TB
memorize

Chapter 3 Famous Side Effects

Question Answer
What are the seven primary drugs/drug classes associated with an adverse effect of bone marrow toxicity?(1) Most chemotherapeutic agents (2) Chloramphenicol (3) Ganciclovir (4) Zidovudine (AZT) (5) Interferon (6) Flucytosine (7) Carbamazepine
What are the six primary drugs/drug classes associated with an adverse effect of hepatotoxicity?(1) Valproic acid (2) Isoniazid (3) Nevirapine (4) Imidazoles (5) Interferon (6) HMG CoA inhibitors (statins); MNEMONIC: Valproic acid Is Never Indicated In Hepatotoxicity
What are the six primary drugs/drug classes associated with an adverse effect of nephrotoxicity?(1) Aminoglycosides (2) Foscarnet (3) Cidofovir (4) NSAIDs (5) Cyclosporine (6) Amphotericin
What drugs cause tendon ruptures?quinolones
What drugs cause DVTs?raloxifene, tamoxifen, estrogens/progesterones
What drugs cause orthostatic hypotension?all alpha blockers, most TCAs
What drugs cause hypertensive crisis?MAO inhibitors, TCAs (most likely when mixed with one another)
What are the five primary drugs/drug classes associated with an adverse effect of serotonin syndrome (explain)?(1) MAO inhibitors (2) SSRIs (3) TCAs (4) SNRIs (5) Decongestants that contain pseudoephedrine (most likely when mixed with one another)
What drugs cause cutaneous flushing?niacin
What drugs cause seizure?meperidine
What drugs can cause G6PD exacerbation?sulfa drugs, primaquine
What are the two primary drugs/drug classes associated with neural tube defects when used by mother during pregnancy?(1) Carbamazepine (2) Valporic acid
memorize

Chapter 4 Antidotes

Question Answer
AcetaminophenN-acetylcysteine
AnticholinergicsPhysostigmine
BenzodiazepinesFlumazenil
Beta-blockersGlucagon and Calcium
COO2 (100%)
CyanideAmyl Nitrate
DigoxinAnti-digoxin FAB antibodies
Ethylene GlycolEthanol
HeparinProtamine
Irondeferoxamine
IsoniazidPyridoxine
LeadEDTA or Dimercaprol (BAL)
MethanolEthanol, Fomepizole
OpioidsNaloxone
WarfarinVit K + FFP
OrganophosphatesAtropine and Pralidoxime
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Chapter 5 Antibiotics

Question Answer
MOA of Penicillins and cephalosporinsact to inhibit cell wall synthesis
Aminoglycoside target (general)Gram negatives, aerobic
Aminoglycosides most notorious AEototoxicity
Gentamicin, Amikacin, Neomycin, Streptomycin, TobramycinAminoglycosides
MOA of Aminoglycosidesinhibit the initiation of translation (inhibit the ability to read RNA to make protein in the bacterium and therfore inhibiting protein synthesis); ONLY protein synthesis inhibitor that is bacterioCIDAL
What drug increases the toxicity associated with aminoglycosides?The toxicity is ototoxicity and loop diuretics make it worse
MOA of Vancomycininhibits phospholipid plasma membrane synthesis and peptidoglycan polymerization; inhibits cell wall and cell membrane synthesis
DOC for methicillin-resistant Staph AureusVancomycin
Ciprofloxacin, Gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin all belong to what family? "FLOX"Quinolones
Biggest AE of the quinolonesTendon rupture (achilles); QT interval prolongation = torsades
MOA of Chloramphenicolinhibits peptidyl transferase, required for protein synthesis
MOA of ErythromycinProtein synthesis inhibitor
MOA of Tetracyclinesinhibit tRNA binding therefore inhibiting protein synthesis
MOA of SulfonamidesInhibit folate synthesis
The addition of this drug, which inhibits the use of folate in bacteria, to a sulfonamide makes them bacteriocidal?Trimethoprim
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