icer215's version from 2016-07-23 02:19

Section 1

Question Answer
Personality is essentially the individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and behavior associated with each person
fundamental aspect of individualitypsychoanalytic perspective, the humanistic perspective, the behaviorist perspective, the social cognitive perspective, the trait perspective, and the biological perspective.
psychoanalytic theoryis shaped by a person’s unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Sigmund Freudpioneered psychoanalytic theory
libidolife instinct, drives behaviors focused on survival, growth, creativity, pain avoidance, and pleasure.commonly defined as “sex drive,”
death instinctrives aggressive behaviors fueled by an unconscious wish to die or to hurt oneself or others.
Psychic energyis distributed among three personality components that function together: id, ego, and superego.
idlargely unconscious and responsible for our desire to avoid pain and seek pleasure *inner child*
pleasure principlethe id seeks to reduce tension, avoid pain, and gain pleasure.
egoresponsible for our logical thinking and planning as we deal with reality
reality principleuses logical thinking and planning to control consciousness and the id
superegoresponsible for our moral judgments of right and wrong and strives for perfection
ego defense mechanismsTo cope with this anxiety and protect the ego, all people develop;that unconsciously deny or distort reality

Section 2

Question Answer
five psychosexual stagesthe oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital stage
oral stagethe child seeks sensual pleasure through oral activities such as sucking and chewing; birth to 1 year old
anal stagethe child seeks sensual pleasure through control of elimination;1 year old to 3 year old
phallic stagethe child seeks sensual pleasure through the genitals.At this stage, the child is both sexually attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent, who is seen as a rival. Oedipus complex and Electra complex; 3year old to 6 years old
latency stagesexual interests subside and are replaced by interests in other areas such as school, friends, and sports.;6 years old to 12 years old
genital stage begins in adolescence, when sexual themes resurface and a person’s life/sexual energy fuels activities such as friendships, art, sports, and careers.;12 years old to 18 years old
psychologically fixatedat that stage, and will, as an adult, continue to seek sensual pleasure through behaviors related to that stage.

Section 3

Question Answer
Erik Eriksonadded social and interpersonal factors to supplement Freud’s theory
infancytrust versus mistrust. physical and emotional needs are not met,birth to 1 year
early childhoodautonomy versus shame and doubt. explore, make mistakes, and test limits1-3 years
preschool age initiative versus guilt. make decisions3-6 years
school ageindustry versus inferiority. understand the world, develop a gender-role identity, succeed in school, and set and attain personal goals,6-12 years
adolescenceidentity versus role confusion. does not test limits and clarify his or her identity, goals, and life meaning,12-18 years
young adulthoodintimacy versus isolation. intimate relationships at this stage,18-35 years
middle agegenerativity versus stagnation. helping the next generation and resolving differences between actual accomplishments and earlier dreams,35-60 years
later life integrity versus despair.looks back with regrets and a lack of personal worth at this stage, 60+ years

Section 4

Question Answer
Psychoanalytic therapy uses various methods to help a patient become aware of his or her unconscious motives, and to gain insight into the emotional issues and conflicts that are presenting difficulties.sometimes referred to as “talk therapy”
humanistic theoryinvolves a relationship between client(not patient)&therapist. the therapist communicates genuineness, unconditional positive
actualizing tendency which is an innate drive to maintain and enhance the organism
self-actualizationrealizing his or her human potential, as long as no obstacle intervenes.
Carl Rogerspioneered the humanistic perspective in psychology, and believed that incongruence between behavior and self-concept causes psychopathology.
self-conceptis made up of the child’s conscious, subjective perceptions and beliefs about him- or herself.
humanistic therapyis to provide an environment that will help clients trust and accept themselves and their emotional reactions, so they can learn and grow from their experiences.
behaviorist perspectivepersonality is a result of learned behavior patterns based on a person’s environment.
deterministicproposing that people begin as blank slates, and that environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine and individual’s subsequent behavior and personalities.
classical conditioninga person acquires a certain response to a stimulus after that stimulus is repeatedly paired with a second, different stimulus that already produces the desired response. as known as associational learning
operant conditioningbehaviors are influenced by the consequences that follow them.

Section 5

Question Answer
Behavioral therapyuses conditioning to shape a client’s behaviors in the desired direction.
ABC modelthe therapist first performs a functional assessment to determine the antecedents (A) and consequences (C) of the behavior (B).
social cognitive perspectivepersonality is formed by a reciprocal interaction among behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
observational learningThe behavioral component includes patterns of behavior learned through classical and operant conditioning.
vicariouslearning occurs when a person watches another person’s behavior and its consequences, thereby learning rules, strategies, and expected outcomes in different situations.
cognitive behavioral therapyBehavioral therapy is usually combined with a cognitive approach
personality traitis a generally stable predisposition toward a certain behavior.
Surface traitsare evident from a person’s behavior. e.g. a person might be described as talkative or exuberant
source traitsare the factors underlying human personality and behavior

Section 6

Question Answer
Raymond Cattellused factor analysis with hundreds of surface traits to identify which traits were related to each other.
five global factorsextroversion, anxiety, receptivity, accommodation, and self-control
Five-Factor Modeldescribes five major personality traits. e.g. extroversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness.
biological perspectiveGenetic influences on personality
Hans Eysenckproposed that a person’s level of extroversion is based on individual differences in the reticular formation
Jeffrey Alan Grayproposed that personality is governed by interactions among three brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli.
C. Robert Cloningeralso linked personality to brain systems involved with reward, motivation, and punishment.
person-situation controversyconsiders the degree to which a person’s reaction in a given situation is due to their personality (trait) or is due to the situation itself (state).
Traitsare considered to be internal, stable, and enduring aspects of personality that should be consistent across most situations.
Statesare situational; they are unstable, temporary, and variable aspects of personality that are influenced by the external environment. For example, extroversion is a trait, stress is a state.
social cuesIn unfamiliar situations, people tend to modify their behavior;(verbal or nonverbal hints that guide social interactions)