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blueghost's version from 2017-04-05 14:02

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Question Answer
Jack Katz“Seductions of Crime” which argued the immediate benefits of criminality. Seductions of crime are situational inducements, which directly precede the commission of a crime and draw offenders into law violations; Individuals are most likely to be “seduced” if they fear neither the risk of apprehension nor its social consequences
Cesare Beccariafocus was not to develop a theory of crime, but to call for fair and certain punishment in order deter crime within society; writings and thoughts soon influenced laws in France, Austria, and even Russia; (a) People choose all behavior, including criminal behavior; (b) Their choices are designed to bring them pleasure and reduce pain; (c) Criminal choices can be controlled by fear of punishment; and (d) The more severe, certain, and swift the punishment, the greater its ability to control criminal behavior
Thomas Hobbessuggested the idea of a “social contract” between people and the state; believed people seek own self interest
Jeremy Benthamdeveloped the “hedonistic calculus” or utilitarianism; believes punishment has four main objectives: 1. To prevent all criminal offenses 2. When it cannot prevent a crime, to convince the offender to commit a less serious crime 3. To ensure that a criminal uses no more force than is necessary 4. To prevent crime as cheaply as possible
Cesare Lombrosobelieved serious offenders who engaged in repeated criminal activity were born criminals; believed physically born criminals were throwbacks to more primitive individuals
Richard Speckbroke into a dormitory raped, and murdered eight student nurses in Chicago, Illinois; believed he had another Y gene--> XYY Theory
William Sheldonidentified three different types of body builds: 1. Mesomorphs 2. Endomorphs 3. Ectomorphs; eventually admitted criminals may come in all types of body types
Sigmund Freudpsychodynamic (or psychoanalytic) theory ; believed everyone carries significant emotional attachments from our childhood, which guide future interpersonal relationships;
John Bowlby credited with the attachment theory ; who believed the ability to form attachments ;
Jean Piagethypothesized an individual’s reasoning processes developed at birth and continue until 12 years old and older;
Michael Stonedeveloped his 22-point scale of evil (1 being least evil and 22 being the highest level of evil).
Émile Durkheimconsidered one of the founders of sociology, but characterized crime as a normal and necessary social event
Thorsten Sellindeveloped the idea that The lower class developing a unique culture in response to strain
Edwin Sutherlanddeveloped differential association theory; believed criminality is learned through a process called “differential association” with others who transfer criminal values and promote crime
Karl MarxCommunist Manifesto; philosopher at the roots of critical criminology; recognized the financial structures within society control all human relations
Albert Cohenfirst articulated the theory of delinquent subcultures in 1955; held the belief that delinquent behavior of lower-class youths is actually an objection against the norms, standards, and values of American culture; subculture theory
George Voldargued politically oriented groups seek the government’s assistance to create laws and defend their rights and protect their interests;
Stanly Milgramdefined crimes of obedience as an act performed in response to orders from authority that is considered illegal or immoral by the larger community; created and carried out the electric shock and teacher experiment
Randall Larsonstudied gender differences in crimes of passion and found support for the evolutionary perspective; theorizes the evolutionary process may help explain crimes of passion and jealousy
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